Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 53, Issue 5, pp 2287–2297 | Cite as

The effect of flow rate at different pressures and temperatures on cocoa butter extracted from cocoa nib using supercritical carbon dioxide

  • E. K. Asep
  • S. JinapEmail author
  • A. R. Russly
  • M. H. A. Jahurul
  • Kashif Ghafoor
  • I. S. M. Zaidul
Original Article


The effects of flow rate, different pressures and temperatures on cocoa butter extracted from cocoa nib using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) were investigated. The yield was analyzed for total fat content, triacylglycerol (TG) profile, and fatty acid (FA) profile. Extractions were carried out at pressures of 20 and 35 MPa, temperatures of 50 and 60 °C, and CO2 flow rates of 0.5, 1, 2, 4 mL min−1. The result shows that the yield of cocoa butter extract increased with increasing pressure, temperature, and flow rate and the optimum conditions for the maximum cocoa butter extraction were 35 MPa, 60 °C and 2 mL min−1, repectively. TGs and FAs were found to be similar in composition to those of cocoa butter obtained by conventional methods. The lower molecular weight TGs and FAs showed higher selectivity compared to higher molecular weight TGs and FAs.


Cocoa butter scCO2 extraction Pressure Temperature Flow rate Selectivity 



The authors would like to thank to the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of Malaysia for supporting financially to this research under Intensification of Research Priority Area (IRPA) Project No. 01-02-04-0512.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. K. Asep
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Jinap
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • A. R. Russly
    • 1
  • M. H. A. Jahurul
    • 3
  • Kashif Ghafoor
    • 4
  • I. S. M. Zaidul
    • 5
  1. 1.Food Safety Research Centre (FOSREC), Faculty of Food Science and TechnologyUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute of Tropical AgricultureUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Faculty of Food Science and NutritionUniversiti Malaysia SabahKota KinabaluMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Food Science and NutritionKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of PharmacyInternational Islamic University MalaysiaKuantanMalaysia

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