Physicochemical and nutritional qualities of grape pomace powder-fortified semi-hard cheeses
- 302 Downloads
Powders obtained from three grape pomaces (Barbera, Chardonnay before distillation, Chardonnay after distillation) were added at two concentration levels (0.8 and 1.6 % w/w) into semi-hard and hard cheeses (Italian Toma-like and Cheddar, respectively) to increase their polyphenol content. Effects on physicochemical characteristics, total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), proteolysis, organic acids content, starter and non-starter bacteria were evaluated during ripening. The amount and the type of powder used did not significantly affect the physicochemical parameters of cheese with the exception of pH their values. Italian Toma-like and Cheddar cheeses fortified with Chardonnay after distillation powder showed at the end of ripening (30 days and 120 days respectively) the highest TPC and RSA values. Proteolysis and microbial counts did not show statistically significant differences between fortified and control cheeses. This study demonstrated that grape pomace powder can be a functional ingredient to increase TPC and RSA in consumers' diets and the addition of this by-product to cheese is an environmentally friendly way to manage winemaking wastes.
KeywordsGrape pomace Cheese Antioxidant activity Proteolysis Polyphenols
Research supported by AGER (project No. 2010-2222). We would kindly thank Mr. David Waldron for cheesemaking and all the staff of University College Cork (UCC).
- Ambrosoli R, Gerbi V, Zeppa G, Terrone S, Tallone G (1998) Aspetti tecnologici, microbiologici, chimici e sensoriali. In: Soster M (ed) Toma piemontese. Regione Piemonte Assessorato Agricoltura, Torino, Italy, pp. 53–73Google Scholar
- Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000) A.O.A.C. Official methods of analysis. 17th ed., Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2001) A.O.A.C. Official methods of analysis of the AOAC 996.06 Fat (total, saturated and unsaturated) in foods, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- Bansal N, Drake MA, Piraino P, Broe ML, Harboe M, Fox PF, McSweeney PLH (2009) Suitability of recombinant camel (Camelus dromedarius) chymosin as a coagulant for cheddar cheese. Int Dairy J 19:510–517Google Scholar
- Bertolino M, Zeppa G, Gerbi V, McSweeney PLH (2008) Study of proteolysis in miniature toma piemontese cheese made using wild bacteria. Italian J Food Sci 20:57–73Google Scholar
- Cheynier V (2006) Flavonoids in wine. In: Andersen ØM, Markham RM (eds) Flavonoids: chemistry, biochemistry and applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 263–318Google Scholar
- FIL-IDF (1969) Determinazione del tenore in materia grassa del formaggio e dei formaggi fusi - Standard 5A - Norme FIL-IDF: definizioni, metodiche di analisi e di prelievo del latte e derivati (vol. 1). La Nazionale, Parma, ItalyGoogle Scholar
- Kuhnen S, Moacyr JR, Mayer JK, Navarro BB, Trevisan R, Honorato LA, Maraschin M, Pinheiro Machado Filho LC (2014) Phenolic content and ferric reducing-antioxidant power of cow’s milk produced in different pasture-based production systems in southern Brazil. J Sci Food Agric 94:3110–3117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McMahon DJ, Oberg CJ, Drake MA, Farkye N, Moyes LV, Arnold MR, Ganesan B, Steele J, Broadbent JR (2014) Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat cheddar cheese. J Dairy Sci 97:4780–4798CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar