Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 52, Issue 11, pp 7401–7408 | Cite as

Fermented dairy products based on ovine cheese whey

  • C. D. PereiraEmail author
  • M. Henriques
  • D. Gomes
  • R. Gouveia
  • A. Gomez-Zavaglia
  • G. de Antoni
Original Article


This work presents an alternative solution for ovine whey components recovery in medium/small cheese plants that predominate in the rural areas of Southern European countries, which are specialized in the production of protected designation of origin (PDO) cheeses. These plants lack the capacity to concentrate and dry whey, and although a significant amount of this by-product is used in the manufacture of whey cheeses, in several cases it is used as animal feed or simply discarded. As an alternative to these practices, we propose the production of liquid whey protein concentrates (LWPC) by means of ultrafiltration (UF) followed by thermal denaturation and homogenization and their utilization in the production of fermented products based on kefir grains and/or commercial probiotic bacteria. Two types of fermented products were prepared: one in a liquid form (low protein and fat contents) and other in a gel form (high protein and fat contents). The microbiological, physicochemical (gross composition, pH, titratable acidity) and rheological properties of such products were assessed and compared during fermentation and at the 7th, 14th and 21st days of refrigerated storage. The fermented products presented adequate amounts of lactococci, lactobacilli (>7 Log10 CFUmL-1) and yeasts (>6 Log10 CFUmL-1). The rheological properties of liquid products were stable during the 21 days of refrigerated storage. However, gel type products showed variations in viscosity after 14 days, in the cases in which kefir grains were present. Although further work is needed in order to optimize the formulations regarding to the improvement of their sensory properties, it was concluded that this approach allows for the production of innovative fermented dairy products.


Ovine Whey Ultrafiltration Kefir Probiotics 



This work was supported by CERNAS - Research Center for Natural Resources, Environment and Society and the CYTED Program (115RT0488). We also acknowledge Queijaria Flôr da Beira for providing ovine whey.


  1. Abraham A, Gómez-Zavaglia A, Garrote G, Brandi LI, De Antoni GL, Fausto R (2011) Fermented product based on milk whey permeate: production processes and uses. Int Patent WO 2011005128 A2Google Scholar
  2. Amatayakul T, Sherka T, Shah NP (2006) Syneresis in set yogurt as affected by EPS starter cultures and levels of solids. Int J Dairy Technol 59:216–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antunes AC, Cazetto TF, Bolini HLA (2005) Viability of probiotic micro-organisms during storage, postacidification and sensory analysis of fat-free yogurts with added whey protein concentrate. Int J Dairy Technol 58:169–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. AOAC – Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1997). Dairy Products In: Official methods of analysis, Volume II, 16th (edn.), ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  5. Athanasiadis I, Paraskevopoulou A, Blekas G, Kiosseoglou V (2004) Development of a novel whey beverage by fermentation with kefir granules. Effect of various treatments. Biotechnol Prog 20:1091–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beshkova DM, Simova ED, Frengova GI, Simov ZI, Dimitrov ZP (2003) Production of volatile aroma compounds by kefir starter cultures. Int Dairy J 13:529–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bolla PA, Serradell ML, de Urraza PJ, De Antoni GL (2011) Effect of freeze-drying on viability and in vitro probiotic properties of a mixture of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from kefir. J Dairy Res 78:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bolla PA, Carasi P, Serradell Mde L, De Antoni GL (2013) Kefir-isolated Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis inhibits the cytotoxic effect of clostridium difficile in vitro. J Dairy Res 80(1):96–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chung C, Degner B, McClements DJ (2013) Development of reduced-calorie foods: microparticulated whey proteins as fat mimetics in semi-solid food emulsions. Food Res Int 56:136–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Di Cagno R, Pasquale I, De Angelis M, Buchin S, Rizzello CG, Gobbetti M (2014) Use of microparticulated whey protein concentrate, exopolysaccharide-producing streptococcus thermophilus, and adjunct cultures for making low-fat Italian caciotta-type cheese. J Dairy Sci 97:72–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Díaz O, Pereira CD, Cobos A (2009) Applications of whey protein concentrates and isolates from the food industry. Alimentaria Investig Tecnol Seguridad 400:108–115Google Scholar
  12. Dissanayake M, Kelly AL, Vasiljevic T (2010) Gelling properties of microparticulated whey proteins. J Agric Food Chem 58:6825–6832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ertekin B, Guzel-Seydim ZB (2009) Effect of fat replacer on kefir quality. J Sci Food Agric 90:543–548Google Scholar
  14. Farnworth ER (2005) Kefir-a complex probiotic. Food Sci Technol Bull Funct Foods 2:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Franco MC, Golowczyc MA, De Antoni GL, Pérez PF, Humen M, Serradell MLA (2013) Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against giardia intestinalis infection. J Med Microbiol 62:1815–1822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gerosa S, Skoet J (2012) Milk availability - trends in production and demand and medium-term outlook. ESA Working paper No. 12-01. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations.
  17. Golowczyc MA, Mobili P, Garrote GL, Abraham AG, De Antoni GL (2007) Protective action of lactobacillus kefir carrying S-layer protein against salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis. Int J Food Microbiol 118:264–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Henriques MHF, Gomes DMGS, Rodrigues D, Pereira CJD, Gil MHM (2011) Performance of bovine and ovine liquid whey protein concentrate on functional properties of set yoghurts. Procedia Food Sci 1:2007–2014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Henriques MHF, Gomes DMGS, Pereira CJD, Gil MHM (2013) Effects of liquid whey protein concentrate on functional and sensorial properties of set yogurts and fresh cheese. Food Bioproc Technol 6:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hill C, Guarner F, Reid G, Gibson GR, Merenstein DJ, Pot B, Morelli L, Berni Canani R, Flint HJ, Salminen S, Calder PC, Sanders ME (2014) Expert consensus document: the international scientific association for probiotics and prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 11:506–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. IPQ - Instituto Português da Qualidade (1990) Leite e produtos lácteos. Edição Normas Portuguesas, Lisboa, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  22. Leite AMO, Leite DC, Del Aguila EM, Alvares TS, Peixoto RS, Miguel MAL, Silva JT, Paschoalin VMF (2013) Microbiological and chemical characteristics of Brazilian kefir during fermentation and storage processes. J Dairy Sci 96:4149–4159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Londero A, Hamet MF, De Antoni GL, Garrote GL, Abraham AG (2012) Kefir grains as a starter for whey fermentation at different temperatures: chemical and microbiological characterization. J Dairy Res 79:262–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lopitz-Otsoa F, Rementeria A, Elguezabal N, Garaizar J (2006) Kefir: a symbiotic yeasts-bacteria community with alleged healthy capabilities. Rev Iberoam Micol 23:67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Madureira AR, Pereira CI, Truszkowskab K, Gomes AM, Pintado ME, Malcata FX (2005) Survival of probiotic bacteria in a whey cheese vector submitted to environmental conditions prevailing in the gastrointestinal tract. Int Dairy J 15:921–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Madureira AR, Amorim M, Gomes AM, Pintado ME, Malcata FX (2011) Protective effect of whey cheese matrix on probiotic strains exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Food Res Int 44(1):465–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Madureira AR, Soares JC, Pintado ME, Gomes AMP, Freitas AC, Malcata FX (2015) Effect of the incorporation of salted additives on probiotic whey cheeses. Food Biosci 10:8–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Magalhães KT, Pereira MA, Nicolau A, Dragone G, Domingues L, Teixeira JA, Silva JB A e, Schwan RF (2010) Production of fermented cheese whey-based beverage using kefir grains as starter culture: evaluation of morphological and microbial variations. Bioresour Technol 101:8843–8850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Magalhães KT, Dragone G, de Melo Pereira G, Oliveira JM, Domingues L, Teixeira JA, Silva JB A e, Schwan RF (2011) Comparative study of the biochemical changes and volatile compound formations during the production of novel whey-based kefir beverages and traditional milk kefir. Food Chem 126:249–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nicolai T, Britten M, Schmitt C (2011) β-lactoglobulin and WPI aggregates: formation, structure and applications. Food Hydrocoll 25:1945–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. NP4146 (1991) Leite e produtos lácteos. Métodos de colheita de amostras. Comissão Técnica - 32, 1ª edição, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  32. Pescuma M, Hebert EM, Mozzi F, Font de Valdez G (2010) Functional fermented whey-based beverage using lactic acid bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 141:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pintado ME, Macedo AC, Malcata FX (2001) Review: technology, chemistry and microbiology of whey cheeses. Food Sci Technol Int 7:105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sandoval-Castilla O, Lobato-Caballeros C, Aguirre-Mandujano E, Vernon-Carter E (2004) Microstructure and texture of yogurt as influenced by fat replacers. Int Dairy J 14:151–159Google Scholar
  35. Smithers GW (2008) Whey and whey proteins - from ‘gutter-to-gold’. Int Dairy J 18:695–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sodini I, Montella J, Tong PS (2005) Physical properties of yogurt fortified with various commercial whey protein concentrates. J Sci Food Agric 85:853–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sodini I, Mattas J, Tong PS (2006) Influence of pH and heat treatment of whey on the functional properties of whey protein concentrates in yoghurt. Int Dairy J 16:1464–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Torres IC, Janhøj T, Mikkelsen BØ, Ipsen R (2011) Effect of microparticulated whey protein with varying content of denatured protein on the rheological and sensory characteristics of low-fat yoghurt. Int Dairy J 21:645–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Torres IC, Rubio JMA, Ipsen R (2012) Using fractal image analysis to characterize microstructure of low-fat stirred yoghurt manufactured with microparticulated whey protein. J Food Eng 109:721–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tripathi MK, Giri SK (2014) Probiotic functional foods: survival of probiotics during processing and storage. J Funct Foods 9:225–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vardjan T, Lorbeg PM, Rogelj I, Čanžek Majhenič A (2013) Characterization and stability of lactobacilli and yeast microbiota in kefir grains. J Dairy Sci 96:2729–2736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang W, Bao Y, Hendricks GM, Guo M (2012) Consistency, microstructure and probiotic survivability of goats’ milk yoghurt using polymerized whey protein as a co-thickening agent. Int Dairy J 24:113–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. D. Pereira
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Henriques
    • 1
  • D. Gomes
    • 1
  • R. Gouveia
    • 1
  • A. Gomez-Zavaglia
    • 2
  • G. de Antoni
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.IPC/ESAC/CERNAS, Polytechnic Institute of CoimbraCollege of AgricultureCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.Center for Research and Development in Food Cryotechnology, CCT-CONICETLa PlataArgentina
  3. 3.Laboratorio de Microbiología, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias ExactasUniversidad Nacional de La PlataLa PlataArgentina

Personalised recommendations