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Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 52, Issue 9, pp 5790–5798 | Cite as

Reactivity of phenolic compounds towards free radicals under in vitro conditions

  • Sindhu Mathew
  • T. Emilia Abraham
  • Zainul Akmar Zakaria
Original Article

Abstract

The free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of 16 phenolic compounds including four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives namely ferulic acid, caffeic acid, sinapic acid and p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid and its derivatives namely protocatechuic acid, gallic acid and vanillic acid, benzene derivatives namely vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, veratryl alcohol, veratraldehyde, pyrogallol, guaiacol and two synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) and propyl gallate were evaluated using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), 2,2′-Azinobis-3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS+•), Hydroxyl radical (OH) and Superoxide radical (O2 •-) scavenging assays and reduction potential assay. By virtue of their hydrogen donating ability, phenolic compounds with multiple hydroxyl groups such as protocatechuic acid, pyrogallol, caffeic acid, gallic acid and propyl gallate exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity especially against DPPH and O2 •-. The hydroxylated cinnamates such as ferulic acid and caffeic acid were in general better scavengers than their benzoic acid counter parts such as vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid. All the phenolic compounds tested exhibited more than 85 % scavenging due to the high reactivity of the hydroxyl radical. Phenolic compounds with multiple hydroxyl groups also exhibited high redox potential. Exploring the radical scavenging and reducing properties of antioxidants especially those which are found naturally in plant sources are of great interest due to their protective roles in biological systems.

Keywords

Free radical scavenging Antioxidant activity Phenolic compounds Reducing power 

Abbreviations

Prot

Protocatechuic acid

Guai

Guaiacol

Caff

Caffeic acid

Feru

Ferulic acid

Coum

p-Coumaric acid

Gall

Gallic acid

Vaci

Vanillic acid

Sina

Sinapinic acid

Prop

Propyl gallate

Veald

Veratraldehyde

BHA

Butylated hydroxy anisole

Veal

Veratryl alcohol

Valc

Vanillyl Alcohol

Pyro

Pyrogallol

Benz

Benzoic acid

Vani

Vanillin

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to the Director, NIIST (CSIR), India for providing the facilities for carrying out this research work. The first author acknowledges CSIR, India for the Research Fellowship and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for the Postdoctoral Fellowship.

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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sindhu Mathew
    • 1
    • 3
  • T. Emilia Abraham
    • 1
  • Zainul Akmar Zakaria
    • 2
  1. 1.Chemical Science and Technology DivisionNational Institute of Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST, CSIR)TrivandrumIndia
  2. 2.Institute of Bioproduct DevelopmentUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia
  3. 3.Institute of Bioproduct DevelopmentUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia

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