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Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 52, Issue 9, pp 5568–5578 | Cite as

Impingement drying for preparing dried apple pomace flour and its fortification in bakery and meat products

  • Jooyeoun Jung
  • George Cavender
  • Yanyun Zhao
Original Article

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate impingement drying (ID) as a rapid drying method to dry wet apple pomace (WAP) and to investigate the fortification of dried apple pomace flour (APF) or WAP in bakery and meat products. ID at ~110 °C reduced the moisture content of apple pomace from 80 % (wet basis) to 4.5 % within 3 h, compared with 24 h to 2.2 % using 40 °C forced-air drying and ~60 h to 2.3 % using freeze drying. Furthermore, ID enhanced the extractable phenolic compounds, allowing for a 58 % increase in total phenolic content (TPC) compared with wet pomace, a 110 % and 83 % higher than TPC in forced-air dried and freeze dried samples, respectively. The 15–20 % APF-fortified cookies were found to be ~44–59 % softer, ~30 % more chewy, and ~14 % moister than those of the control. WAP-fortified meat products had significantly higher dietary fiber content (0.7–1.8 % vs. 0.1–0.2 % in control) and radical scavenging activity than that of the control. These results suggest that impingement drying is a fast and effective method for preparing dried APF with highly retained bioactive compounds, and apple pomace fortified products maintained or even had improved quality.

Keywords

Apple pomace Impingement dry Dietary fibers Functional bakery and meat products 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully thank the financial support of the Hood River Juice Company (Hood River, OR, USA) on this project, as well as the supply of the apple pomace samples.

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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science & TechnologyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

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