Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 1839–1848 | Cite as

Characterization and in vitro biological activities of Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes

  • Thanyaporn Kleekayai
  • Donlaporn Saetae
  • Ongart Wattanachaiyingyong
  • Shinjiro Tachibana
  • Masaaki Yasuda
  • Worapot SuntornsukEmail author
Short Communication


In this work, chemical and biological characteristics of two types of Thai fermented shrimp paste, Kapi Ta Dam and Kapi Ta Deang, at different fermentation periods and their raw materials were investigated. Kapi had low water activity and high proteins with high glutamic acid and lysine. Both Kapis, which had different sources, showed similar characteristics. The number of lactic acid bacteria in the products increased during the early stages of fermentation. Free α-amino acid contents in the products increased with the fermentation time. The water extracts from Kapi products showed strong antioxidative activities against ABTS+ radical, and ACE inhibitory activity but they did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. Biological activities in Kapi could be developed by fermentation process, enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins and non-enzymatic browning reactions. Kapi could, thus, serve as a potential source of natural bioactive substances.


Fermented shrimp paste Antioxidative activity Antimicrobial activity Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity 



The authors are grateful to the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) and King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT) for a PhD scholarship of Miss Thanyaporn Kleekayai under the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program (Grant No. PHD/0133/2552). We thank to the Asian Core Program (ACP), “Capacity Building and Development of Microbial Potential and Fermentation Technology towards New Era”, of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) for the support of research cooperation and the Royal Thai Government for the financial support through research budget of KMUTT. We would finally like to thank Miss Elizabeth Finnegan and Dr. Celia Conessa from University of Limerick, Ireland, for editing and proofing our manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Adler-Nissen J (1979) Determination of the degree if hydrolysis of food protein hydrolysates by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. J Agric Food Chem 27(6):1256–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AOAC (1995) Official methods of analysis, 16th edn. AOAC International, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  3. Binsan W, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Roytrakul S, Tanaka M, Kishimura H (2008) Antioxidative activity of Mungoong, an extract paste, from the cephalothorax of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Food Chem 106(1):185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cha YJ, Cadwallader KR (1995) Volatile components in salt-fermented fish and shrimp pastes. J Food Sci 60(1):19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eakpetch P, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Kijroongrojana K (2008) Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeousvannamei) meat: characterization and the effect of protein additive. J Food Sci 73(2):95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Faithong N, Benjakul S, Phatcharat S, Binsan W (2010) Chemical composition and antioxidative activity of Thai traditional fermented shrimp and krill products. Food Chem 119(1):133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Garcia-Carreño FL, Hernandez-Cortes MP, Haard NF (1994) Enzyme with peptidase and proteinase activity from the digestive systems of a freshwater and a marine decapod. J Agric Food Chem 42:1456–1461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Giri A, Osako K, Okamoto A, Okazaki E, Ohshima T (2011) Antioxidative properties of aqueous and aroma extracts of squid miso prepared with Aspergillus oryzae-inoculated koji. Food Res Int 44:317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hartmann R, Meisel H (2007) Food-derived peptides with biological activity: from research to food applications. Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ichimura T, Hu J, Aita DQ, Maruyama S (2003) Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and insulin secretion stimulative activity of fermented fish sauce. J Biosci Bioeng 96:496–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Je JY, Park JY, Jung WK, Park PJ, Kim SK (2005a) Isolation of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor from fermented oyster sauce, Crassostrea gigas. Food Chem 90:809–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Je JY, Park PJ, Byun HG, Jung WK, Kim SK (2005b) Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide derived from the sauce of fermented blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Bioresour Technol 96:1624–1629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jung WK, Rajapakse N, Kim SK (2004) Antioxidative activity of low molecular weight peptide derived from the sauce of fermented blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Eur Food Res Technol 220:535–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kiesvaara M (1975) On the soluble nitrogen fraction of barrel-salted herring and semi-preserves during ripening. Publication No. 10, Technical Research Center of Finland, Helsinki, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  15. Kim JS, Shahidi F, Heu MS (2003) Characterization of salt-fermented sauces from shrimp processing by products. J Agric Food Chem 51:784–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kobayashi T, Kajiwara M, Wahyuni M, Kitakado T, Hamada-Sato N, Imada C, Watanabe E (2003) Isolation and characterization of halophilic lactic acid bacteria isolated from “terasi” shrimp paste: a traditional fermented seafood products in Indonesia. J Gen Appl Microbiol 49(5):279–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kuete V, Tangmouo JG, Penlap Beng V, Ngounou FN, Lontsi D (2006) Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract from the stem bark of Tridesmostemon omphalocarpoides (Sapotaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 104:5–11Google Scholar
  18. Laemmli UK (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227:680–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li SJ, Seymour TA, Morrissey MT (1994) Isolation of a natural antioxidant from shrimp waste. In: Shahidi F (ed) Natural antioxidants and their uses in foods. American Chemical Society, Washington DC, pp 283–295Google Scholar
  20. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193(1):265–275Google Scholar
  21. Oyaizu M (1986) Studies on products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr 44:307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Papagianni M, Anastasiadou S (2009) Pediocins: the bacteriocins of Pediococci. Sources, production, properties and applications. Microb Cell Fac 8(3). doi: 10.1186/1475-2859-8-3
  23. Pengchumrus W, Upanoi T (2005) Species and distribution of Acetes shrimps in seagrass beds and mangrove canals in the Andaman sea. Technical Paper No. 12/2005, Phuket Marine Biological Center, Department of Marine and Coastal Resources, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Phuket, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  24. Peralta E, Hatate H, Watanabe D, Kawabe D, Murata H, Hama Y, Tanaka R (2005) Antioxidative activity of Philippine salt-fermented shrimp paste and variation of its contents during fermentation. J Oleo Sci 54:553–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Peralta E, Hatate H, Kawabe D, Kuwahara R, Wakamatsu S, Murata H (2008) Improving antioxidant activity and nutritional components of Philippine salt-fermented shrimp paste through prolonged fermentation. Food Chem 11(1):72–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Phithakpol B (1993) Fish fermentation technology in Thailand. In: Lee CH, Steinkraus KH, Reilly PJA (eds) Fish fermentation technology. United Nations University Press, Seoul, pp 155–166Google Scholar
  27. Rajapakse N, Mendis E, Jung WK, Je JY, Kim SK (2005) Purification of a radical scavenging peptide from fermented mussel sauce and its antioxidant properties. Food Res Int 38:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 26(9/10):1231–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sachindra NM, Sato E, Maeda H, Hosokawa M, Niwano Y, Kohno M, Miyashita K (2007) Radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching activity of marine carotenoid fucoxanthin and its metabolites. J Agric Food Chem 55:8516–8522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sarath G, de la Motte RS, Wagner FW (1990) Protease assay methods. In: Beynon RJ (ed) Proteolytic enzymes: a practical approach. IRL Press, Oxford, pp 25–54Google Scholar
  31. Seok SH, Park JH, Cho SA, Choi SA, Park JH (2004) Cholesterol lowering effect of SG-GN3, the extract of salted and fermented shrimps, Acetes japonicas, in Triton WR-1339 or high cholesterol-diet induced hypercholesterolemic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 91:231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sriket C, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W (2011) Characterisation of proteolytic enzymes from muscle and hepatopancreas of fresh water prawn (Macrobrashium rosenbergii). J Sci Food Agric 91:52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tamang JP, Kailaspathy K (2010) Fermented foods and beverages of the world. CRC Press, FloridaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tanasupawat S, Visessanguan W (2008) Thai fermented foods. In: Farnworth ER (ed) Handbook of fermented functional foods, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Florida, pp 495–512Google Scholar
  35. Udomsil N, Rodtong S, Tanasupawat S, Yongsawatdigul J (2010) Proteinase-producing halophilic lactic acid bacteria isolated from fish sauce fermentation and their ability to produce volatile compounds. Int J Food Microbiol 141(3):186–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. van Amsterdam FT, Roveri A, Maiorino M, Ratti E, Ursini F (1992) Lacidipine: a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with antioxidant activity. Free Radic Biol Med 12:183–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thanyaporn Kleekayai
    • 1
  • Donlaporn Saetae
    • 1
  • Ongart Wattanachaiyingyong
    • 1
  • Shinjiro Tachibana
    • 2
  • Masaaki Yasuda
    • 2
  • Worapot Suntornsuk
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of ScienceKing Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT)BangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of the RyukyusOkinawaJapan

Personalised recommendations