Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 52, Issue 7, pp 4475–4482 | Cite as

Functional bread with n-3 alpha linolenic acid from whole chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour

  • Patricia Luna Pizarro
  • Eveline Lopes AlmeidaEmail author
  • Alessandra Silva Coelho
  • Norma Cristina Sammán
  • Miriam Dupas Hubinger
  • Yoon Kil Chang
Original Article


This work proposed to study the effects of the addition of whole chia flour (WCF) on the technological, nutritional and sensory qualities of bread. Different WCF contents (0 and 20 %) and vital gluten (VG) (0 and 4 %) were added to bread according to a 22 central composite rotational design. WCF decreased the specific volume, lightness and hue angle of the bread loaves, but did not affect the chroma values. WCF and VG contributed to maintenance of the moisture content of the loaves during the storage period. The increased firmness found with the addition of high levels of WCF (more than 10 %) was countered by larger amounts of VG (more than 2 %). The optimum loaf (10 % WCF and 2 % VG) showed 26 % more lipids, 19 % more protein and 11 % more ash than the standard loaf (0 % WCF and 0 % VG). A better lipid profile was also found (higher omega-3 fatty acid content and a better omega-6/omega-3 ratio). Both breads were positively rated in the sensory profile analysis.


Polyunsaturated fatty acids Response surface methodology Vital gluten Bread quality Sensory analysis 



The authors would like to thank the CAPES-SPU (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) via CAPG-BA for funding the research.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia Luna Pizarro
    • 1
  • Eveline Lopes Almeida
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alessandra Silva Coelho
    • 2
  • Norma Cristina Sammán
    • 1
  • Miriam Dupas Hubinger
    • 2
  • Yoon Kil Chang
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringNational University of JujuySan Salvador de JujuyArgentina
  2. 2.Faculty of Food EngineeringUniversity of CampinasCampinasBrazil

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