Advertisement

Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 52, Issue 6, pp 3466–3474 | Cite as

Effect of aqueous extracts of Mentha arvensis (mint) and Piper betle (betel) on growth and citrinin production from toxigenic Penicillium citrinum

  • Pragyanshree Panda
  • Visenuo Aiko
  • Alka Mehta
Original Article

Abstract

Due to growing concern of consumers about chemical residues in food products, the demand for safe and natural food is increasing greatly. The use of natural additives such as spices and herbal oil as seasoning agents for their antimicrobial activity has been extensively investigated. This paper discusses the efficacy of the aqueous extract of mint (Mentha arvensis) and betel (Piper betle) on the mycelial growth and citrinin production of Penicillium citrinum. The present investigation revealed that mint extract inhibited citrinin production up to 73 % without inhibiting the mycelium growth. The citrinin production decreased with increase in the concentration of mint extract as observed from the data obtained from High pressure liquid chromatography. The samples also showed reduced cytotoxicity on HeLa cells. On the other hand betel extract resulted in stimulatory effect on citrinin production and mycelial growth. The study showed that mint extract has the potential to be used safely for restraining citrinin contamination.

Keywords

Penicillium citrinum Mycotoxin Citrinin Mentha arvensis Inhibitory activity Cyotoxicity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Vellore Institute of Technology University for laboratory facilities and funds and also for financial support to Ms. Pragyanshree Panda. The authors are also thankful to Agharkar research institute, Pune, India for identification of the fungal strain and National center for cell science, Pune, India for providing cell lines.

References

  1. Aberkane A, Cuenca-Estrella M, Gomez-Lopez A, Petrikkou E, Mellado E, Monzon A, Rodriguez-Tudela JL (2002) Comparative evaluation of two different methods of inoculum preparation for antifungal susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi. J Antimicrob Chemother 50:719–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramson D, Hulasare R, White NDG, Jayas DS, Marquardt RR (1999) Mycotoxin formation in hulless barley during granary storage at 15 and 19 % moisture content. J Stored Prod Res 35:297–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azuine MA, Bhide SV (1992) Protective single/combined treatment with betel leaf and turmeric against methyl (acetoxymethyl) nitrosamine-induced hamster oral carcinogenesis. Int J Cancer 51:412–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baliga MS, Rao S (2010) Radioprotective potential of mint: a brief review. J Cancer Res Ther 6:255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Basilico MZ, Basilico JC (1999) Inhibitory effects of some spice essential oils on Aspergillus ochraceus NRRL 3147 growth and ochratoxin a production. Lett Appl Microbiol 29:238–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beekrum S, Govinden R, Padayachee T, Odhav B (2003) Naturally occurring phenols: a detoxification strategy for fumonisin B1. Food Addit Contam 20:490–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennett JW (1983) Differentiation and secondary metabolites in mycelia fungi’. In: Bennet JW, Ciegler A (eds) Secondary metabolism and differentiation in fungi’. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  8. Bhatnagar D, Zeringue HJ, Cormick SP (1990) Neem leaf extracts inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In Proceedings of the USDA neem workshop. Beltsville, Maryland: US Department of Agriculture pp. 118–127.Google Scholar
  9. Boca RT, Gonzalez HL, Resnik SL (2002) Cultural characteristics, growth kinetic and citrinin production by Penicilium citrinum Thom isolates recovered from Argentinean corn. J Argent Chem Soc 90:49–54Google Scholar
  10. Chalfoun SM, Pereira MC, Resende MLV, Angélico CL, Silva RA (2004) Effect of powdered spice treatments on mycelial growth, sporulation and production of aflatoxins by toxigenic fungi. Ciênc Agrotec 28:856–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chang MJ, Ko CY, Lin RF, Hsiesh LL (2002) Biological monitoring of environment exposure to safrole and the Taiwanese betel quid chewing. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 43:432–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chipley JR, Uraih N (1980) Inhibition of Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin release by derivatives of benzoic acid. Appl Environ Microbiol 40:352–357Google Scholar
  13. Chou CC, Yu RC (1984) Effect of Piper betle L. and its extracts on the growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus’. Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China B 8:30–35Google Scholar
  14. Dasgupta N, De B (2004) Antioxidant activity of Piper betel L. leaf extract in vitro’. Food Chem 88:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fanelli C, Ricelli A, Reverberi M, Fabbri AA (2004) Aflatoxins and ochratoxins in cereal grains: an open challenge. Recent Res Dev Crop Sci 1:295–317Google Scholar
  16. Flajs D, Peraica M (2009) Toxicological properties of citrinin’. Arh High Rada Toksikol 60:457–464Google Scholar
  17. Frank HK (1992) Citrinin. Z Ernahrungswiss 31:164–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gibriel YAY, Hamza AS, Gibriel AY, Mohsen SM (2011) In vivo effect of mint (Mentha viridis) essential oil on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus isolated from stored corn. J Food Saf 31:445–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hasan HAH (2000) Patulin and aflatoxin in brown rot lesion of apple fruits and their regulation. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 16:607–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hetherington AC, Raistrick H (1931) Studies in biochemistry of microorganism XI. On the production and chemical constitution of a new yellow colouring matter, citrinin, produced from glucose by Penicillium citrinum Thom’. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 220:269–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hitokoto H, Morozumi S, Wauke T, Sakai S, Kurata H (1980) Inhibitory effects of spices on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi. Appl Environ Microbiol 39:818–822Google Scholar
  22. Janardhana GR, Raveesha KA, Shetty HS (1999) Mycotoxin contamination of maize grains grown in Karnataka (India). Food Chem Toxicol 37:863–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jayashree T, Subramanyam C (2000) Oxidative stress as a prerequisite for aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Free Radic Biol Med 29:981–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kim JH, Yu J, Mahoney N, Chan KL, Molyneux RJ, Varga J, Bhatnagar D, Cleveland TE, Nierman WC, Campbell BC (2008) Elucidation of the functional genomics of antioxidant-based inhibition of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Int J Food Microbiol 122:49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kimura M, Rodriquez-Amaya DB (2002) A scheme for obtaining standards and HPLC quantification of leafy vegetables carotenoids. Food Chem 78:389–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kitabatake N, Trivedi AB, Doi E (1991) Thermal decomposition and detoxification of citrinin under various moisture conditions. J Agric Food Chem 39:2240–2244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kitabatake N, Doi E, Trivedi AB (1993) Toxicity evaluation of the mycotoxins, citrinin and ochratoxin A, using several animal cell lines. Comp Biochem Physiol C 105:429–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kumar A, Shukla R, Singh P, Prasad CS, Dubey NK (2008) Assessment of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil as a safe botanical preservative against post harvest fungal infestation of food commodities. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 9:575–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lledias F, Rangel P, Hansberg W (1999) Singlet oxygen is part of a ‘hyperoxidant state generated during spore germination. Free Rad Biol Med 26:1396–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mahmoud ALE (1999) Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus by extracts of some Egyptian plants. Lett Appl Microbiol 29:334–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mahoney N, Molyneux RJ, Kim JH, Campbell BC, Waiss AC, Hagerman AE (2010) Aflatoxigenesis induced in Aspergilllus flavus by oxidative stress and reduction by phenolic antioxidants from tree nuts. World Mycotoxin J 3:45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Maisuthisakul P, Suttajit M, Pongsawatmanit R (2007) Assessment of phenolic content and free radical-scavenging capacity of some Thai indigenous plants. Food Chem 100:1409–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Martins ML, Gimeno A, Martins HM, Bernardo F (2002) Co-occurrence of patulin and citrinin in Portuguese apples with rotten spots. Food Addit Contam 19:568–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mehta AB, Hirota M, Doi E, Kitabatake N (1993) Formation of a new toxic compound, Citrinin H1, from citrinin on mild heating in water. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans I 18:2167–2171Google Scholar
  35. Meimaroglou DM, Galanopoulou D, Markaki P (2009) Study of the Effect of Methyl Jasmonate Concentration on Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus in Yeast Extract Sucrose Medium. Int J Microbiol 2009:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mosmann T (1983) Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 65:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mossini SAG, Kemmelmeier C (2008) Inhibition of Citrinin Production in Penicillium citrinum Cultures by Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Meliaceae). Int J Mol Sci 9:1676–1684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Prakash B, Shukla R, Singh P, Kumar A, Mishra PK, Dubey NK (2010) Efficacy of chemically characterized Piper betle L. essential oil against fungal and aflatoxin contamination of some edible commodities and its antioxidant activity. Int J Food Microbiol 142:114–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Reverberi M, Fabbri AA, Zjalic S, Ricelli A, Punelli F, Fanelli C (2005) Antioxidant enzymes stimulation in Aspergillus parasiticus by Lentinula edodes inhibits aflatoxin production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 69:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Reverberi M, Ricelli A, Zjalic S, Fabbri AA, Fanelli C (2010) Natural functions of mycotoxins and control of their biosynthesis in fungi. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:899–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Samapundo S, De Meulenaer B, Osei-Nimoh D, Lamboni Y, Debevere J, Devlieghere F (2007) Can phenolic compounds be used for the protection of corn from fungal invasion and mycotoxin contamination during storage? Food Microbiol 24:465–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sandosskumar R, Karthikeyan M, Mathiyazhagan S, Mohankumar M, Chandrasekar G, Velazhahan R (2007) Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and detoxification of aflatoxin B1 by the medicinal plant zimmu (Allium sativum L. × Allium cepa L.). World J Microbiol Biotechnol 23:1007–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Skrinjar MM, Mandic AI, Misan AC, Sakac BM, Saric LJ, Zec M (2009) Effect of mint (Mentha piperita l.) and caraway (Carum carvi l.) on the growth of some toxigenic Aspergillus species and aflatoxin B1 production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 116:131–139Google Scholar
  44. Srichana D, Phumruang A, Chongkid B (2009) Inhibition Effect of Betel Leaf Extract on the Growth of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Thammasat Int J Sc Tech 14(3):74–77Google Scholar
  45. Tanaka K, Sago Y, Zheng Y, Nakagawa H, Kushiro M (2007) Mycotoxins in rice. Int J Food Microbiol 119:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thanaboripat D, Nontabenjawan K, Leesin K, Teerapiannont D, Sukcharoen O, Ruangrattanamatee R (1997) Inhibitory effect of Garlic, Clove and Carrot on growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production. J For Res 8:39–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tian J, Huang B, Luo X, Zeng H, Ban X, He J, Wang Y (2011) The control of Aspergillus flavus with Cinnamomum jensenianum Hand.-Mazz essential oil and its potential use as a food preservative. Food Chem 130:520–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tolaini V, Zjalic S, Reverberi M, Fanelli C, Fabbri AA, Del Fiore A, De Rossi P, Ricelli A (2010) Lentinula edodes enhances the biocontrol activity of Crypyptococcus laurentii against Penicillium expansum contamination and patulin production in apple fruits. Int J Food Microbiol 138:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Trivedi AB, Kitabatake N, Doi E (1990) Toxicity of dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent in bioassay system with HeLa cells evaluated colorimetrically with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide. Agric Biol Chem 54:2961–2966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vazquez BI, Fente C, Franco CM, Vazquez MJ, Cepeda A (2001) Inhibitory effects of eugenol and thymol on Penicillium citrinum strains in culture media and cheese. Int J Food Microbiol 67:157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Xu BJ, Jia XQ, Gu LJ, Sung CK (2006) Review on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the mycotoxin citrinin. Food Control 17:271–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biosciences and TechnologyVIT UniversityVelloreIndia

Personalised recommendations