Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 52, Issue 4, pp 2256–2263 | Cite as

Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads

  • Tasleem A. ZafarEmail author
  • Fatima Al-Hassawi
  • Fatima Al-Khulaifi
  • Ghanima Al-Rayyes
  • Carol Waslien
  • Fatma G. Huffman
Original Article


Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfort in digestion. The breads were rated >5.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale with WB significantly higher than all other breads. No difference in area under the curve (AUC) for appetite was found, but blood glucose AUC was reduced as follows: 35%ChB < WB and WWB, WB >25%ChB = WWB or 35%ChB. We conclude that addition of chickpea flour at 35 % to whole wheat produces a bread that is acceptable to eat, causing no physical discomfort and lowers the glycemic response.


Wheat breads Chickpea flour supplemented composite breads Bread quality Glycemic response Appetite Organoleptic properties 


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tasleem A. Zafar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fatima Al-Hassawi
    • 1
  • Fatima Al-Khulaifi
    • 1
  • Ghanima Al-Rayyes
    • 1
  • Carol Waslien
    • 2
  • Fatma G. Huffman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College for Women, AdaliyaKuwait UniversitySafatKuwait
  2. 2.Middle East MonitorWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Dietetics and NutritionFlorida International UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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