Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 1748–1753 | Cite as

Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil

  • C. Da PortoEmail author
  • A. Natolino
  • D. Decorti
Original Article


Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was shown that the content of linoleic, α-linolenic and oleic acids (the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids) of the hemp seed oils were not affected significantly by the application of ultrasound. UV spectroscopy indices (K232 and K268) and antiradical capacity were used to follow the quality of oils. Significant were the changes in their antiradical capacity due to ultrasound treatment. A comparison with the oil extracted by Soxhlet was also given.


Hemp seed Oil Ultrasound Supercritical CO2 extraction 


  1. Balaban MO, Chen CS (1992) Supercritical fluid extraction: applications for the food industry, In Hui YH (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology, vol. 4, pp. 2444–2449Google Scholar
  2. Callaway J, Tennilä T, Pate DW (1996) Occurrence of “omega-3” stearidonic acid (cis-6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoic acid) in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed. J Int Hemp Assoc 3:61–63Google Scholar
  3. Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I (2005) Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Dermatolog Treat 16:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Capuano F, Beaudoin F, Napier JA, Shewry PR (2007) Properties and exploitation of oleosins. Biotech Adv 25:203–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Da Porto C, Decorti D, Tubaro F (2012) Fatty acid composition and oxidation stability of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. Ind Crop Prod 36:401–404. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.09.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deferne JL, Pate DW (1996) Hemp seed oil: A source of valuable essential fatty acids. J Int Hemp Assoc 3:4–7Google Scholar
  7. Espín JC, Soler-Rivas C, Wichers HJ (2000) Characterization of the total free radical scavenger capacity of vegetable oils and oil fractions using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical. J Agric Food Chem 48:648–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Harris WS (2006) The omega-6/omega-3 ratio and cardiovascular disease risk: uses and abuses. Curr Atheroscler Rep 8:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hidalgo FJ, León MM, Zamora R (2006) Antioxidative activity of amino phospholipids and phospholipid/amino acid mixtures in edible oils as determined by the Rancimat method. J Agric Food Chem 54:5461–5467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. International Olive Council-Method of Analysis (COI/T.20/Doc. no 24, 2001)Google Scholar
  11. ISO (2002) Animal and vegetable fats and oils. In: ISO 3656: Determination of Ultraviolet Absorbance Expressed as Specific UV Extinction, ISO 3657: Determination of Saponification Value. International Organisation for StandardisationGoogle Scholar
  12. Karleskind A (1992) Manuel des corps gras. Technique et Documentation. Lavoisier, Paris, pp. 1–1580Google Scholar
  13. Ku CS, Mun SP (2008) Characterization of seed oils from fresh Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) and wine processing waste. Bioresour Technol 99:2852–2856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lang Q, Wai CM (2001) Supercritical fluid extraction in herbal and natural product studies––a practical review. Talanta 53:771–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Leo L, Rescio L, Ciurlia L, Zacheo G (2005) Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oil and α-tocopherol from almond seeds. J Sci Food Agric 85:2167–2174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lou Z, Wang H, Zhang M, Wang Z (2010) Improved extraction of oil from chickpea under ultrasound in a dynamic system. J Food Eng 98:13–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Luo D, Qiu T, Lu Q (2007) Ultrasound-assisted extraction of ginsenosides in supercritical CO2 inverse microemulsions. J Agric Food Chem 87:431–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maskan M, Bagci HI (2003) The recovery of used sunflower seed oil utilized in repeated deep-fat frying process. Euro Food Res Technol 218:26–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mason TJ, Lorimer JP (1988) Sonochemistry: theory, application and uses of ultrasound in chemistry. Ellis Horwood, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  20. Oh K, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (2005) Dietary fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up of the nurses’ health study. Am J Epidemiol 161:672–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Oomah BD, Busson M, David V, Godfrey DV, John CG, Drover JCG (2002) Characteristics of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil. Food Chem 76:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Povh NP, Marques MOM, Meireles MAA (2001) Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oil and oleoresin from chamomile (Chamomilla recutetia L. Rauschert). J Sup Fluid 21:245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Romdhane M, Gourdan C (2002) Investigation in solid–liquid extraction: influence of ultrasound. J Chem Eng 87:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Simopoulos AP (2002) The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 56:365–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sovová H (2005) Mathematical model for supercritical fluid extraction of natural products and extraction curve evaluation. J Sup Fluids 33:35–52, 25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vichi S, Pizzale L, Conte LS, Buxaderas S, Lopez-Tamames E (2003) Solid-Phase microextraction in the analysis of virgin olive oil volatile fraction: characterization of virgin olive oils from two distinct geographical areas of Northern Italy. J Agric Food Chem 51:6572–6577. doi: 10.1021/jf030269c Google Scholar
  27. Vinatoru M, Toma M, Mason TJ (1999) Ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from plants and their constituents, In Mason TJ (Ed), Advances in Sonochemistry, Vol. 5, pp. 209–248, JAI PressGoogle Scholar
  28. Zamora R, Alaiz M, Hidalgo FJ (1997) Feed-back inhibition of oxidative stress by oxidized lipid/amino acid reaction products. Biochemistry 36:15765–15771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zamora R, Leόn MM, Nogales F, Hidalgo FJ (2011) Free radical-scavenging activity of non enzymatically-browned phospholipids produced in the reaction between phosphatidylethanolamine and ribose in hydrophobic media. Food Chem 124:1490–1495CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of UdineUdineItaly

Personalised recommendations