Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 676–684 | Cite as

Reduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grains

  • Raj Kishor Gupta
  • Shivraj Singh Gangoliya
  • Nand Kumar Singh
Review

Abstract

More than half of the world populations are affected by micronutrient malnutrition and one third of world’s population suffers from anemia and zinc deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Iron and zinc deficiencies are the major health problems worldwide. Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorous in cereals, legumes, oil seeds and nuts. Phytic acid is known as a food inhibitor which chelates micronutrient and prevents it to be bioavailabe for monogastric animals, including humans, because they lack enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several methods have been developed to reduce the phytic acid content in food and improve the nutritional value of cereal which becomes poor due to such antinutrient. These include genetic improvement as well as several pre-treatment methods such as fermentation, soaking, germination and enzymatic treatment of grains with phytase enzyme. Biofortification of staple crops using modern biotechnological techniques can potentially help in alleviating malnutrition in developing countries.

Keywords

Phytic acid Phytase Dephytinization Micronutrients Monogastric animals 

References

  1. Agte VV, Gokhale MK, Chiplonkar SA (1997) Effect of natural fermentation on in vitro zinc bioavailability in cereal-legume mixture. Int J Food Sci Tech 31:29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ames BN (1966) Assay of inorganic phosphate, total phosphate and phosphatases. Methods Enzymol 8:115–118Google Scholar
  3. Asada K, Tanaka K, Kasai Z (1969) Formation of phytic acid in cereal grains. Ann NY Acad Sci 165:801–814Google Scholar
  4. Boesch DF, Brinsfield RB, Magnien RE (2001) Chesapeake bay eutrophication: scientific understanding, ecosystem restoration, and challenges for agriculture. J Environ Qua 30:303–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bohn T, Davidsson L, Walczyk T, Hurrell RF (2004) Phytic acid added to white-wheat bread inhibits fractional apparent magnesium absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 79:418–423Google Scholar
  6. Bohn L, Meyer AS, Rasmussen SK (2008) Phytate: impact on environment and human nutrition. A challenge for molecular breeding. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 9:165–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boling SD, Douglas MW, Johnson ML, Wang X, Parsons CM, Koelkebeck KW (2000) The effects of dietary available phosphorus levels and phytase performance of young and older laying hens. Poult Sci 79:224–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brinch-Pedersen H, Sorensen LD, Holm PB (2002) Engineering crop plants: getting a handle on phosphate. Trends Plant Sci 7:118–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cakmak I, Wolfgang HP, Bonnie M (2010) Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc and iron cereal chem 87:10–20Google Scholar
  10. Cantrell RG, Joppa LR (1991) Genetic analysis of quantitative traits in wild emmer (Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides). Crop Sci 31:645–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chelius MK, Wodzinski RJ (1994) Strain improvement of Aspergillus niger for phytase production. Appl Micro Biotech 41:79–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen QC (2004) Determination of phytic acid and inositol pentakis phosphate in foods by HPLC. Agric Food Chem 52:4604–4613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coulibaly A, Kouakou B, Chen J (2011) Phytic acid in cereal grains: Healthy or harmful ways to reduce phytic acid in cereal grains and their effects on nutritional quality. Am J plant Nutr Fert Technol 1:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Das A, Raychaudhuri U, Chakraborty R (2011) Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review. J Food Sci Tech. doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0474-1 Google Scholar
  15. Diaz RI, Gregory JF III, Hanson AD (2007) Folate biofortification of tomato fruit. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:4218–4222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ebune A, Al-Asheh S, Duvnjak Z (1995) Production of phytase during solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus ficuum NRRL 3135 in canola meal. Biores Technol 53:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Erdman JW Jr (1979) Oilseeds phytate: nutritional implications. JAOCS 56:736–741Google Scholar
  18. Ertas N, Turker S (2012) Bulgur processes increase nutrition value: possible role in in-vitro protein digestability, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor activity and mineral bioavailability. J Food Sci Tech. doi:10.1007/s13197-012-0638-7 Google Scholar
  19. Feil B (2001) Phytic acid. J New Seeds 3:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fiske CH, Subbarao Y (1925) The colorimetric determination of phosphorus. J Biol Chem 66:375–400Google Scholar
  21. Greiner R, Carlsson NG (2006) Myo-Inositol phosphate isomers generated by the action of a phytate-degrading enzyme from Klebsiella terrigena on phytate. Can J Microbiol 52:759–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Greiner R, Konietzny U (2006) Phytase for food application. Food Technol Biotechnol 44:125–140Google Scholar
  23. Gupta RK, Singh NK, Sharma S, Shukla KP, Singh V (2011) Role of MicroRNA in crop plant improvement. OIJB 1:14–24Google Scholar
  24. Guttieri MJ, Bowen D, Dorsch JA, Raboy V, Souza E (2004) Identification and characterization of low phytic acid wheat. Crop Sci 44:418–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Haard NF, Odunfa SA, Lee CH, Quintero-Ramirez A, Lorence-Quinones A, Wacher-Radarte C (1989) Fermented cereals.: a global perspective. FAO, Agricultural Service Bulletin 138Google Scholar
  26. Haefner S, Knietsch A, Scholten E, Braun J, Lohscheidt M, Zelder O (2005) Biotechnological production and applications of phytases. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 68:588–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hallberg L, Brune M, Rossander L (1989) Iron-absorption in man—ascorbic-acid and dose-dependent inhibition by phytate. Am J Clin Nutr 49:140–144Google Scholar
  28. Hara A, Ebina S, Kondo A, Funaguma T (1985) A new type of phytase from pollen of Typha latifolia Agric. Biol Chem 49:3539–3544Google Scholar
  29. Harland BF, Harland J (1980) Fermentative reduction of phytate in rye, white and whole wheat breads. Cereal Chem 57:226–229Google Scholar
  30. Harland BF, Oberleas D (1986) Anion-exchange method for determination of phytate in foods-collaborative study. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 69:667–670Google Scholar
  31. Harland BF, Prosky LD (1979) Development of dietary fibre values for foods. Cereal Foods World 24:387–394Google Scholar
  32. Hawson SJ, Davis RP (1983) Production of phytate hydrolyzing enzyme by some fungi. Enzyme Microb Technol 5:377–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Heinonen JK, Lahti RJA (1981) New and convenient calorimetric determination of inorganic orthophosphate and its application to the assay of inorganic pyrophosphatase. Analytic Biochem 113:313–317Google Scholar
  34. Idriss E, Makarewicz O, Farouk A, Rosner K, Greiner R, Bochow HT, Richter T, Borriss R (2002) Extracellular phytase activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB45 contributes to its plant-growth-promoting effect. Microbiology 148:2097–2109Google Scholar
  35. Iskander FY, Morad MM (1986) Multielement determination in wheat and bran. J R N C 105:151–156Google Scholar
  36. Joanna S, Zbigniew K (2011) Evaluation of the content and bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium from groats, rice, leguminous grains and nuts. J Food Sci Tech. doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0535-5 Google Scholar
  37. Jorge EM, Wolfgang HP, Peter B (2008) Biofortified crops to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. Curr Opin Plant Biol 11:166–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kasim AB, Edwards HMJ (1998) The analysis of inositol phosphate forms in feed ingredients. Sci Food Agric 76:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Knorr D, Watkins TR, Carlson BL (1981) Enzymatic reduction of phytate in whole wheat breads. J Food Science 46:1866–1869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Konietzny U, Greiner R (2002) Molecular and catalytic properties of phytate-degrading enzymes (phytases). Int J Food Sci Technol 37:791–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kostrewa D, Gruninger-Leitch F, Darcy A, Broger C, Mitchell D, Van Loon AP (1997) Crystal structure of phytase from Aspergillus ficuum at 2.5 Å resolution. Nat Struc Biol 4:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kaur KD, Jha A, Sabikhi L, Singh AK (2011) Significance of coarse cereals in health and nutrition: a review. J Food Sci Tech. doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0612-9 Google Scholar
  43. Lehrfeld J (1994) HPLC separation and quantitation of phytic acid and some inositol phosphates in foods: problems and solutions. J Agric Food Chem 42:2726–2731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lei XG, Stahl CH (2001) Biotechnological development of effective phytases for mineral nutrition and environmental protection. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57:474–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lestienne I, Caporiccio B, Besancon P, Rochette I, Treche S (2005) Relative contribution of phytates, fibers and tannins to low iron and zinc in vitro solubility in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) flour and grain fractions. J Agric Food Chem 53:8342–8348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lie XG, Porres JM (2003) Phytase enzymology, applications and biotechnology. Biotechnol Lett 25:1787–1794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lim D, Golovan S, Forsberg C, Jia Z (2000) Crystal structures of Escherichia coli phytase and its complex with phytase. Nat Struct Biol 7:108–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lolas GM, Palamidids N, Markakis P (1976) The phytic acid—total phosphorus relationship in barley, oats, soybeans and wheat. Cereal Chem 53:867–871Google Scholar
  49. Lucca P, Hurrel R, Potrykus I (2001) Approaches to improving the bioavailability and level of iron in rice seeds. Theor Appl Genet 102:392–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lung SC, Chan WL, Yip W, Wang L, Yeung EC, Lim BL (2005) Secretion of beta-propeller phytase from tobacco and Arabidopsis roots enhances phosphorus utilization. Plant Sci 169:341–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Maenz DD, Classen HL (1998) Phytase activity in the small intestinal brush-border membrane of the chicken. Poult Sci 77:557–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mahgoub SEO, Elhag SA (1998) Effect of milling, soaking, malting, heat-treatment and fermentation on phytate level of four Sudanese sorghum cultivars. Food Chem 61:77–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Makokha AO, Oniango RK, Njoroge SM, Kamar OK (2002) Effect of traditional fermentation and malting on phytic acid and mineral availability from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and funger millet (Eleusine caracana) grain varieties grown in Kenya. Food Nutr Bull 23:241–245Google Scholar
  54. Mallin MA (2000) Impacts of industrial animal production on rivers and estuaries. Am Sci 88:26–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marshall AA, Samuel JE, Mary UE, Inegbenose GI (2011) Effect of germination on the phytase activity, phytate and total phosphorus contents of rice, maize, millet, sorghum and wheat. J Food Sci Tech 48:724–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Masud T, Mahmood T, Latif A, Sammi S, Hameed T (2007) Influence of processing and cooking methodologies for reduction of phytic acid content in wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties. J Food Process Pres 31:583–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McCollum EV, Hart EB (1908) On the occurrence of a phytin-splitting enzyme in animal tissue. J Biol Chem 4:497–500Google Scholar
  58. Milko J, Oscar M, Fumito M, Petra M, De La Maria LM (2008) Current and future biotechnological applications of bacterial phytases and phytase-producing bacteria. Microbes Enron 23:182–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mollgaard H (1946) On phytic acid, its importance in metabolism and its enzymic cleavage in bread supplemented with calcium. Biochem J 40:589–603Google Scholar
  60. Mullaney EJ, Daly CB, Kim T, Porres JM, Lei XG, Sethumadhavan K, Ullah AH (2002) Site-directed mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger NRRL 3135 phytase at residue 300 to enhance catalysis at pH 4.0. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 297:1016–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mullaney EJ, Ullah AH (2003) The term phytase comprises several different classes of enzymes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 312:179–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mustafa KD, Adem E (2011) Comparison of autoclave, microwave, IR and UV-stabilization of whole wheat flour branny fractions upon the nutritional properties of whole wheat bread. J Food Sci Tech. doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0475-0 Google Scholar
  63. Nahm KH (2002) Efficient feed nutrient utilization to reduce pollutants in poultry and swine manure. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 32:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nair VC, Duvnjak Z (1990) Reduction of phytic acid content in canola meal by Aspergillus ficuum in solid-state fermentation process. Appl Micro Biotech 34:183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Naqvi SWA, Jayakumar DA, Narvekar PV, Naik H, Sarma VS, Souza DW (2000) Increased marine production of N2O due to intensifying anoxia on the Indian continental shelf. Nature 408:346–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nout MJR, Rambouts FM (1990) Recent developments in tempere search: a review. J Appl Bacteriol 69:609–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nout MJR (1993) Processed weaning foods for tropical climates. Int J Food Sci Nutr 43:213–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. O’Dell BL, Boland AR, Koirtyohann SR (1972) Distribution of phytate and nutritionally important elements among the morphological components of cereal grains. J Agric Food Chem 20:18–724Google Scholar
  69. Pasamonts L, Haiker M, Wyss M, Van Loon AP (1997) Gene cloning, purification, and characterization of a heat stable phytase from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:1696–1700Google Scholar
  70. Perlas LA, Gibson RS (2002) Use of soaking to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from rice-based complementary foods used in the Philippines. J Sci Food Agric 82:1115–1121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Phillippy BQ (2006) Transport of calcium across Caco-2 cells in the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate. Nutr Res 26:146–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Poiana MA, Alexa E, Bragea M (2009) Studies concerning the phosphorus bioavailability improvement of some cereals used in nourishment. Roumanian Biotechnol Lett 14:4467–4473Google Scholar
  73. Ragon M, Aumelas A, Chemardin P, Santiago S, Moulin G, Boze H (2008) Complete hydrolysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate by a novel phytase from Debaryomyces castellii CBS 2923. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 78:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rapoport S, Leva E, Guest GM (1941) Phytase in plasma and erythrocytes of vertebrates. Biol Chem 139:621–632Google Scholar
  75. Ravindran V, Ravindran G, Sivalogan S (1994) Total and phytate phosphorus contents of various foods and feedstuffs of plant origin. Food Chem 50:133–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ravindran V, Bryden WL, Kornegay ET (1995) Phytates: occurrence, bioavailability and implications in poultry nutrition. Poult Avian Biol Rev 6:125–143Google Scholar
  77. Rawat N, Tiwari VK, Singh N, Randhawa GS, Singh K, Chhuneja P, Dhaliwal HS (2009) Evaluation and utilization of Aegilops and wild Triticum species for enhancing iron and zinc content in wheat. Genet Resour Crop Evol 56:53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Reddy NR, Sathe SK, Salunkhe DK (1982) Phytases in legumes and cereals. Adv Food Res 82:1–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reddy MB, Hurrell RF, Juillerat MA, Cook JD (1996) The influence of different protein sources on phytate inhibition of nonheme-iron absorption in humans. A J Clin Nutr 63:203–207Google Scholar
  80. Rehms H, Barz W (1995) Degradation of stachyose, raffinose, melibiose and sucrose by different tempe-producing Rhizopus fungi. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 44:47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rodriguez E, Wood ZA, Karplus PA, Lei XG (2000) Site-directed mutagenesis improves catalytic efficiency and thermostability of Escherichia coli pH 2.5 acid phosphatase/phytase expressed in Pichia pastoris. Arch Biochem Biophys 382:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sandsted HH (1995) Is Zinc deficiency a public health problem? Nutrition 11:87–92Google Scholar
  83. Schlemmer U, Frolich W, Prieto RM, Grases F (2009) Phytate in foods and significance for humans: food sources, intake, processing, bioavailability, protective role and analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res 53:S330–S375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schroder B, Breve G, Rodehutscord M (1996) Mechanisms of intestinal phosphorus absorption and availability of dietary phosphorus in pigs. Dtsch Tieraerztl Wochenschr 103:209–214Google Scholar
  85. Scott JJ (1991) Alkaline phytase activity in nonionic detergent extracts of legume seeds. Plant Physiol 95:1298–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Scott JJ, Loewus FA (1986) A calcium activated phytasr from pollen of Lilium longiflorum. Plant Physiol 82:333–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Segueilha L, Moulin G, Galzy P (1993) Reduction of phytate content in wheat bran and glandless cotton flour by Schwan niomyces castelii. J Agric Food Chem 41:2451–2454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Selle PH, Ravindran V (2007) Microbial phytase in poultry nutrition. Animal Feed Sci Technol 135:1–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shimizu M (1992) Purification and characterization of phytase from Bacillus subtilis (natto) N-77. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 56:1266–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shi J, Wang H, Schellin K, Li B, Faller M, Stoop JM, Meeley RB, Ertl DS, Ranch JP, Glassman K (2007) Embryo-specific silencing of a transporter reduces phytic acid content of maize and soybean seeds. Nat Biotechnol 25:930–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Shieh TR, Ware JH (1968) Survey of microorganism for the production of extracellular phytase. Appl Microbiol 16:1348–1351Google Scholar
  92. Shukla A, Singh NK (2012) Development and characterization of Indian Indam rice TILLING population and identification of mutants having low phytic acid content by endogenous phytase activity determination. Proc World Congress Biotechnol, Hyderabad 4–6Google Scholar
  93. Singh B, Kunze G, Satyanarayana T (2011) Developments in biochemical aspects and biotechnological applications of microbial phytases. Biotechnol Mol Bio Rev 6:69–87Google Scholar
  94. Singh NK, Joshi DK, Gupta RK (2013) Isolation of phytase producing bacteria and optimization of phytase production parameters. J J Microbiol (in press)Google Scholar
  95. Steiner T, Mosenthin R, Zimmermann B, Greiner R, Roth S (2007) Distribution of phytase activity, total phosphorus and phytate phosphorus in legume seeds, cereals and cereal by-products as influenced by harvest year and cultivar. Anim Feed Sci Tech 133:320–334Google Scholar
  96. Suma PF, Urooj A (2011) Nutrients, antinutrients and bioaccessible mineral content (invitro) of pearl millet as influenced by milling. J Food Sci Tech. doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0541-7 Google Scholar
  97. Suzuki M, Tanaka K, Kuwano M, Yoshida KT (2007) Expression pattern of inositol phosphate related enzymes in rice (Oryza sativa L.): Implications for the phytic acid biosynthetic pathway. Gene 405:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Till BJ, Cooper J, Tai TH, Colowit P, Greene EA, Henikoff S, Comai L (2007) Discovery of chemically induced mutation in rice by TILLING. BMC Plant Biol 7:19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tomschy A, Tessier M, Wyss M, Brugger R, Broger C, Schnoebelen L, Van Loon APGM, Pasamontes M (2000) Optimization of the catalytic properties of Aspergillus fumigatus phytase based on the three-dimensional structure. Protein Sci 9:1304–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Turner BL, Haygarth PM (2000) Phosphorus forms and concentrations in leachate under four grassland soil types. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:1090–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Urbano G, Lopez-Jurado M, Aranda P, Vidal-Valverde C, Tenorio E, Porres J (2000) The role of phytic acid in legumes: antinutrient or beneficial function? J Physiol Biochem 56:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vats P, Banerjee UC (2004) Production studies and catalytic properties of phytases (myo-inositol-hexakis-phosphate phosphohydrolases): an overview. Enzyme Microb Technol 35:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Vellingiri V, Hans KB (2010) Effect of certain indigenous processing methods on the bioactive compounds of ten different wild type legume grains. J Food Sci Tech 49:673–684Google Scholar
  104. Venktachalam M, Sathe SK (2006) Chemical composition of selected edible nut seeds. J Agric Food Chem 54:4705–4714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Vidal-Valverde C, Frias J, Estrella I, Gorospe MJ, Ruiz R, Bacon J (1994) Effect of processing on some antinutritional factors of lentils. J Agric Food Chem 42:2291–2295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Vohra A, Satyanarayana T (2003) Phytases: microbial sources, production, purification, and potential biotechnological applications. Crit Rev Biotechnol 23:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wise A (1983) Dietary factors determining the biological activities of phytase. Nutr Abstr Rev 53:791–806Google Scholar
  108. Wodzinski RJ, Ullah AH (1996) Phytase. Adv Appl Microbiol 42:263–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yano F, Nakajima T, Matsuda M (1999) Reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus from livestock waste: a major priority for intensive animal production. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 12:651–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhang HW, Bai XL (2011) Optimization of extraction conditions for phytic acid from rice bran using response surface methodology and its antioxidant effects. J Food Sci Tech. doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0521-y Google Scholar
  111. Zhou JR, Erdman JW (1995) Phytic acid in health and disease. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 35:495–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raj Kishor Gupta
    • 1
  • Shivraj Singh Gangoliya
    • 1
  • Nand Kumar Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Motilal Nehru National Institute of TechnologyAllahabadIndia

Personalised recommendations