Advertisement

Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 51, Issue 9, pp 2113–2119 | Cite as

Acid-induced gelation behavior of casein/whey protein solutions assessed by oscillatory rheology

  • Mahboubeh Sadeghi
  • Ashkan MadadlouEmail author
  • Asghar Khosrowshahi
  • Mohammadamin Mohammadifar
Original Article

Abstract

Gelation process of acid-induced casein gels was studied using response surface method (RSM). Ratio of casein to whey proteins, incubation and heating temperatures were independent variables. Final storage modulus (G′) measured 200 min after the addition of glucono-δ-lactone and the gelation time i.e. the time at which G′ of gels became greater than 1 Pa were the parameters studied. Incubation temperature strongly affected both parameters. The higher the incubation temperature, the lower was the G′ and the shorter the gelation time. Increased heating temperature however, increased the G′ but again shortened the gelation time. Increase in G′ was attributed to the formation of disulphide cross-linkages between denatured whey proteins and casein chains; whilst the latter was legitimized by considering the higher isoelectric pH of whey proteins. Maximum response (G′ = 268.93 Pa) was obtained at 2.7 % w/w, 25 °C and 90 °C for casein content, incubation and heating temperatures, respectively.

Keywords

Acid-induced gel Gelation behavior Rheology Response surface method 

References

  1. Arshad M, Paulsson M, Dejmek P (1993) Rheology of buildup, breakdown and rebodying of acid casein gels. J Dairy Sci 76:3310–3316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baş D, Boyaci IH (2007) Modeling and optimization. I. Usability of response surface methodology. J Food Eng 78:836–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bayraktar E (2001) Response surface optimization of the separation of DL-tryptophan using an emulsion liquid membrane. Process Biochem 37:169–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Braga ALM, Menossi M, Cunha RL (2006) The effect of the glucono-δ-lactone/caseinate ratio on sodium caseinate gelation. Int Dairy J 16:389–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cavallieri ALF, Da Cunha RL (2008) The effects of acidification rate, pH and ageing time on the acidic cold set gelation of whey proteins. Food Hydrocolloids 22:439–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chakraborty SK, Kumbhar BK, Chakraborty S, Yadav P (2011) Influence of processing parameters on textural characteristics and overall acceptability of millet enriched biscuits using response surface methodology. J Food Sci Technol 48(2):167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Damin MR, Alcântara MR, Nunes AP, Oliviera MN (2009) Effects of milk supplementation with skim milk powder, whey protein concentrate and sodium caseinate on acidification kinetics, rheological properties and structure of nonfat stirred yogurt. LWT-Food Sci Tech 42:1744–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Foegeding EA, Brown J, Drake MA, Daubert CR (2003) Sensory and mechanical aspects of cheese texture. Int Dairy J 13:585–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ginta TL, Amin AKMN, Radzi HCDM, Lajis MA (2009) Tool life prediction by response surface methodology in end milling titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V using uncoated WC-Co inserts. Eur J Sci Res 28(4):533–541Google Scholar
  10. Jelen P, Buchheim W, Peters KH (1987) Heat stability and use of milk with modified casein: whey protein content in yoghurt and cultured milk products. Milchwissenschaft 42:418–421Google Scholar
  11. Jha A, Tripathi AD, Alam T, Yadav R (2012) Process optimization for manufacture of pearl millet-based dairy dessert by using response surface methodology (RSM). J Food Sci Technol. doi: 10.1007/s13197-011-0347-7
  12. Kücükcetin A (2008) Effect of heat treatment and casein to whey protein ratio of skim milk on graininess and roughness of stirred yoghurt. Food Res Int 41:165–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee WJ, Lucey JA (2004a) Rheological properties, whey separation, and microstructure in set-style yogurt: effects of heating temperature and incubation temperature. J Texture Stud 34:515–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee WJ, Lucey JA (2004b) Structure and physical properties of yogurt gels: effect of inoculation rate and incubation temperature. J Dairy Sci 87:3153–3164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee WJ, Lucey JA (2006) Impact of gelation conditions and structural breakdown on the physical and sensory properties of stirred yogurts. J Dairy Sci 89:2374–2385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lucey JA, Munro PA, Singh H (1999) Effects of heat treatment and whey protein addition on the rheological properties and structure of acid skim milk gels. Int Dairy J 9:275–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lucey JA, Tamehana M, Singh H, Munro PA (1998a) A comparison of the formation, rheological properties and microstructure of acid skim milk gels made with a bacterial culture or glucono-δ-lactone. Food Res Int 31:147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lucey JA, Tamehana M, Singh H, Munro PA (1998b) Effect of interactions between denatured whey proteins and casein micelles on the formation and rheological properties of acid skim milk gels. J Dairy Res 65:555–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lucey JA, van Vliet T, Grolle K, Geurts T, Walstra P (1997a) Properties of acid casein gels made by acidification with glucono-δ-lactone. 1. Rheological properties. Int Dairy J 7:381–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lucey JA, Teo CT, Munro PA, Singh H (1997b) Rheological properties at small (dynamic) and large (yield) deformations of acid gels made from heated milk. J Dairy Res 64:591–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Madadlou A, Emam-Djomeh Z, Mousavi ME, Ehsani M, Javanmard M, Sheehan D (2009) Response surface optimization of an artificial neural network for predicting the size of re-assembled casein micelles. Comput Electron Agric 68:216–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Madadlou A, Emam-Djomeh Z, Mousavi ME, Mohamadifar M, Ehsani M (2010) Acid-induced gelation behavior of sonicated casein solutions. Ultrason Sonochem 17(1):153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Morris HA, Ghaleb HM, Smith DE, Bastian ED (1995) A comparison of yoghurts fortified with nonfat dry milk and whey protein concentrates. Cult Dairy Prod J 30(1):2–4, 31Google Scholar
  24. Phadungath C (2005) The mechanism and properties of acid-coagulated milk gels. Songklanakarin J Sci Tech 27(2):433–448Google Scholar
  25. Roefs SPFM, van Vliet T (1990) Structure of acid casein gels. 2. Dynamic measurements and type of interaction forces. Colloid Surface 50:161–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Smits P, van Brouwershaven JH (1980) Heat-induced association of β-lactoglobulin and casein micelles. J Dairy Res 47:313–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Steffe JF (1996) Rheological methods in food process engineering, 2nd edn. Freeman Press, East Lansing, USA, p 200Google Scholar
  28. Sodini I, Lucas A, Tissier JP, Corrieu G (2005) Physical properties and microstructure of yoghurts supplemented with milk protein hydrolysates. Int Dairy J 15:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tiwari S, Bhattacharya S (2012) Mango pulp-agar based model gel: textural characterization. J Food Sci Technol. doi: 10.1007/s13197-011-0486-x
  30. Val-Arreola D, Kebreab E, France J (2006) Modeling small-scale dairy farms in central Mexico using multi-criteria programming. J Dairy Sci 89:1662–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. van Vliet T, Keetels CJAM (1995) Effect of preheating of milk on the structure of acidified milk gels. Netherlands Milk Dairy J 49:27–35Google Scholar
  32. Yim HS, Chye FY, Rao V, Low JY, Matanjun P, How SE, Ho CW (2012) Optimization of extraction time and temperature on antioxidant activity of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract using response surface methodology. J Food Sci Technol. doi: 10.1007/s13197-011-0349-5

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahboubeh Sadeghi
    • 1
  • Ashkan Madadlou
    • 2
    Email author
  • Asghar Khosrowshahi
    • 1
  • Mohammadamin Mohammadifar
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of AgricultureUrmia UniversityUrmiaIran
  2. 2.Department of Food TechnologyInstitute of Chemical Technologies, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST)TehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition and Food ScienceShahid Beheshti Medical UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations