Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 51, Issue 5, pp 988–993 | Cite as

Influence of drying treatments on antioxidant capacity of forage legume leaves

  • Saw Yei Sang
  • Fazrina Jamharee
  • K. Nagendra Prasad
  • Azrina Azlan
  • Nurzillah Maliki
Original Article


This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant capacities of four common forage legume leaves namely, Arachis pintoi (Pintoi), Calapogonium mucunoides (Calapo), Centrosema pubescens (Centro), and Stylosanthes guanensis (Stylo). Two different drying methods (oven-drying and freeze-drying) were employed and antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and β-carotene bleaching assays. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Freeze-dried extract showed the highest antioxidant activities by DPPH (EC50 values 1.17–2.13 mg/ml), FRAP (147.08–246.42 μM of Fe2+/g), and β-carotene bleaching (57.11–78.60%) compared to oven drying. Hence, freeze drying treatment could be considered useful in retention of antioxidant activity and phenolic content.


Antioxidants Legume leaves Phenolics Oven-drying Freeze-drying 



The authors would like to thank Institute of Veterinary Malaysia, Johor for providing the legume leaves and Universiti Putra Malaysia for usage of laboratory facilities.


  1. Amin I, Tan SH (2002) Antioxidant activity of selected commercial seaweeds. Maly J Nutr 8(2):167–177Google Scholar
  2. Annegowda HV, Bhat R, Tze LM, Karim AA, Mansor SM (2011) The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extracts of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)—an underutilized legume. J Food Sci Technol. doi: 10.1007/s13197-011-0370-8
  3. Azizah O, Amin I, Nawalyah AG, Ilham A (2007) Antioxidant capasity and phenolic content of cocoa beans. Food Chem 100:1523–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barreira JCM, Ferreira ICFR, Oliveira MBPP, Pereira JA (2008) Antioxidant activities of the extracts from chestnut flower, leaf, skins and fruit. Food Chem 107(3):1106–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benzie IFF, Strain JJ (1996) The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “Antioxidant Power”. The FRAP Assay. Anal Biochem 239(1):70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhattacharya S, Malleshi NG (2011) Physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of premature-processed and matured green legumes. J Food Sci Technol. doi: 10.1007/s13197-011-0299-y
  7. Brand-William W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C (1995) Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft and Technologies 28:25–30Google Scholar
  8. Chan EWC, Lim YY, Omar M (2007) Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of leaves of Etlingera species (Zingiberaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia. Food Chem 104(4):1586–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chan EWC, Lim YY, Wong SK, Lim KK, Tan SP, Lianto FS, Yong MY (2009) Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species. Food Chem 113(1):166–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cho YS, Yeum KJ, Chen CY, Beretta G, Tang G, Krinsky NI, Yoon S, Lee-Kim YC, Blumberg JB, Russell RM (2007) Phytonutrients affecting hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities in fruits, vegetables and legumes. J Sci Food Agric 87:1096–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Department of Veterinary Services (2005) Nutrient composition of Malaysian feed materials and guides to feeding of cattle and goats, 3rd edn. Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  12. Dudonne S, Vitrac X, Coutiere P, Woillez M, Merillon JM (2009) Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of 30 plant extracts of industrial interest using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD and ORAC assays. J Agric Food Chem 57:1768–1774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fang YZ, Yang S, Wu G (2002) Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutr 18(10):872–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Flight I, Clifton P (2006) Cereal grains and legumes in the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke: a review of the literature. Eur J Clinical Nutr 60:1145–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gazzani G, Papetti A, Massolini G, Daglia M (1998) Antioxidative and pro-oxidant activity of water soluble components of some common diet vegetables and the effect of thermal treatment. J Food Chem 6:4118–4122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Han H, Baik BK (2008) Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of lentils (Lens culinaris), chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.), peas (Pisum sativum L.) and soybeans (Glycine max), and their quantitative changes during processing. Intl. J Food Sci Technol 43:1971–1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kähkönen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, Kujala TS, Heinonen M (1999) Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 47:3954–3962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Katsube T, Tsurunaga Y, Sugiyama M, Furuno T, Yamasaki Y (2009) Effect of air-drying temperature on antioxidant capacity and stability of polyphenolic compounds in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves. Food Chem 113(4):964–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Koncic MZ, Kremer D, Gruz J, Strnad M, Bisevac G, Kosalec I, Samec J, Zegarac P (2010) Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Moltkia petraea (Tratt.) Griseb. flower, leaf and stem infusions. Food Chem Toxicol 48:1537–1542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee WY, Emmy Hainida KI, Abbe Maleyki MJ, Amin I (2007) Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of selected commercially available cruciferous vegetables. Maly J Nutr 13(1):71–80Google Scholar
  21. Ozsoy N, Can A, Yanardag R, Akev N (2008) Antioxidant activity of Smilax excelsa L. leaf extracts. Food Chem 110(3):571–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Prasad KN, Chew LY, Khoo HE, Kong KW, Azlan A, Amin I (2010) Antioxidant capacities of peel, pulp and seed fractions of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. fruit. J Biomed & Biotech, 2010, 1–8. Article id: 871379, doi: 10.1155/2010/871379
  23. Prior RL, Wu X, Schaich K (2005) Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J Agric Food Chem 53:4290–4302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sagar VR, Kumar SP (2010) Recent advances in drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review. J Food Sci Technol 47:15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Saxena R, Venkaiah K, Anitha P, Venu L, Raghunath M (2007) Antioxidant activity of commonly consumed plant foods of India: contribution of their phenolic content. Intl J Food Sci Nutr 58(4):250–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shad MA, Perveez H, Nawaz H, Khan H, Ullah MA (2009) Evaluation of biochemical and phytochemical composition of some groundnut varieties grown in arid zone of Pakistan. Pak J Botany 41(6):2739–2749Google Scholar
  27. Shetty K, Wahlqvist M (2004) A model for the role of the proline-linked pentosephosphate pathway in phenolic phytochemical biosynthesis and mechanism of action for human health and environmental applications. Asia Pac J Clinical Nutr 13(1):1–24Google Scholar
  28. Singleton VL, Rossi JA (1965) Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American J Enology Viticult 16:144–158Google Scholar
  29. Wahlqvist ML (2002) Chronis disease prevention: A life-cycle approach which takes account of the environmental impact and opportunities of food, nutrition and public health policies—the rationale for an eco-nutritional disease nomenclature. Asia Pac J Clinical Nutr 11:S759–S762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wen TN, Prasad KN, Bao Y, Amin I (2010) Bioactive substance contents and antioxidant activity of blanched and raw vegetables. Innov Food Sci Emerg 11:464–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. World Health Organisation (WHO) (2009) Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) Fact Sheet No.317, Geneva, September 2009. Accessed on October, 22, 2010 at
  32. Xu BJ, Yuan SH, Chang SKC (2007) Comparative analyses of phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, and color of cool season legumes and other selected food legumes. J Food Sci 72:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yang B, Zhao M, Shi J, Cheng G, Ruenroengklin N, Jiang Y (2008) Variations in water-soluble saccharides and phenols in longan fruit pericarp after drying. J Food Process Eng 31:66–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saw Yei Sang
    • 1
  • Fazrina Jamharee
    • 1
  • K. Nagendra Prasad
    • 1
  • Azrina Azlan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nurzillah Maliki
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health ScienceSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Laboratory of Halal Science Research, Halal Products Research InstituteUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Institute of Veterinary MalaysiaKluangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations