Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 51, Issue 6, pp 1021–1040 | Cite as

Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fiber: a review

  • Palanisamy Bruntha Devi
  • Rajendran Vijayabharathi
  • Sathyaseelan Sathyabama
  • Nagappa Gurusiddappa Malleshi
  • Venkatesan Brindha Priyadarisini


The growing public awareness of nutrition and health care research substantiates the potential of phytochemicals such as polyphenols and dietary fiber on their health beneficial properties. Hence, there is in need to identify newer sources of neutraceuticals and other natural and nutritional materials with the desirable functional characteristics. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), one of the minor cereals, is known for several health benefits and some of the health benefits are attributed to its polyphenol and dietary fiber contents. It is an important staple food in India for people of low income groups. Nutritionally, its importance is well recognised because of its high content of calcium (0.38%), dietary fiber (18%) and phenolic compounds (0.3–3%). They are also recognized for their health beneficial effects, such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumerogenic, atherosclerogenic effects, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This review deals with the nature of polyphenols and dietary fiber of finger millet and their role with respect to the health benefits associated with millet.


Finger millet Health benefits Polyphenols Non starch polysaccharides 


  1. Adam J, Singer MD, Richard AF, Clark MD (1999) Cutaneous wound healing. N Engl J Med 341(10):738–746Google Scholar
  2. Annison G, Topping DP (1994) Nutritional role of resistant starch: chemical structure and physiological function. Annu Rev Nutr 14:297–320Google Scholar
  3. Antony U, Chandra TS (1998) Antinutrient reduction and enhancement in protein, starch and mineral availability in fermented flour of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). J Agric Food Chem 46:2578–2582Google Scholar
  4. Antony U, Sripriya G, Chandra TS (1996) Effect of fermentation on the primary nutrients in finger millet (Eleusine coracana). J Agric Food Chem 44:2616–2618Google Scholar
  5. Antony U, Moses LG, Chandra TS (1998) Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli by fermented flour of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). World J Microbiol Biotechnol 14:883–886Google Scholar
  6. Asharani VT, Jayadeep A, Malleshi NG (2010) Natural antioxidants in edible flours of selected small millets. Int J Food Prop 13(1):41–50Google Scholar
  7. Bailey CJ (2001) New approaches to the pharmacotherapy of diabetes. In: Pickup JC, William G (eds) Text book of diabetes, 3rd edn. Blackwell Science Ltd, UK, Vol 2 pp 73.10–73.2Google Scholar
  8. Baranowski JD, Davidson PM, Nagel CW, Brannen RL (1980) Inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by naturally occurring hydroxyl cinnamates. J Food Sci 45:592–594Google Scholar
  9. Barbara OS (1999) Fiber, inulin and oligofructose: similarities and differences. J of Nutr 129:1424S–1430SGoogle Scholar
  10. Baron AD (1998) Postprandial hyperglycemia and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 40:S51–S55Google Scholar
  11. Bingham S (1987) Definitions and intakes of dietary fiber. Am J Clin Nutr 45:1226–1231Google Scholar
  12. Björk I, Nyman M, Asp NG (1984) Extrusion cooking and dietary fibre: effects on dietary fibre content and on degradation in the rat intestinal tract. Cereal Chem 61(2):174–179Google Scholar
  13. Bravo L (1998) Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev 56:317–333Google Scholar
  14. Bunzel M, Ralph J, Marita JM, Hatfield RD, Steinhart H (2001) Diferulates as structural components in soluble and insoluble cereal dietary fiber. J Sci Food Agric 81:653–660Google Scholar
  15. Camire ME (2001) Extrusion cooking: technologies and applications. In: Guy R (ed) Woodhead Publishing Co, Cambridge, pp 109–129Google Scholar
  16. Castelluccio C, Paganga G, Melikian N, Bolwett GP, Pridham J, Sampson J, Rice-Evans C (1995) Antioxidant potential of intermediates in phenylpropanoid metabolism in higher plants. FEBS Lett 368:188–192Google Scholar
  17. Chandrasekara A, Shahidi F (2010) Content of insoluble bound phenolics in millets and their contribution to antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem 58:6706–6714Google Scholar
  18. Chattopadhyay S, Ramanathan M, Das J, Bhattacharya SK (1997) Animal models in experimental diabetes mellitus. Indian J Exp Biol 35:141–145Google Scholar
  19. Chavan UD, Shahidi F, Naczk M (2001) Extraction of condensed tannins from beach pea (Lathyrus maritmus L.) as affected by different solvents. Food Chem 75:509–512Google Scholar
  20. Chethan S, Malleshi NG (2007a) Finger millet polyphenols: optimization of extraction and the effect of pH on their stability. Food Chem 105:862–870Google Scholar
  21. Chethan S, Malleshi NG (2007b) Finger millet polyphenols: characterization and their nutraceutical potential. Am J Food Technol 2:582–592Google Scholar
  22. Chethan S, Dharmesh SM, Malleshi NG (2008a) Inhibition of aldose reductase from cataracted eye lenses by finger millet (Eleusine coracana) polyphenols. Bioorg Med Chem 16:10085–10090Google Scholar
  23. Chethan S, Sreerama YN, Malleshi NG (2008b) Mode of inhibition of finger millet malt amylases by the millet phenolics. Food Chem 111:187–191Google Scholar
  24. Cowan MM (1999) Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 12:564–582Google Scholar
  25. Cuvelier ME, Richard H, Berset C (1992) Comparison of the antioxidative activity of some acid–phenols: structure activity relationship. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 56(2):325Google Scholar
  26. Davison GW, George L, Jackson SK, Young IS, Davies B, Bailey DM, Peters JR, Ashton T (2002) Exercise, free radicals and lipid peroxidation in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Free Radical Biol Med 33:1543–1551Google Scholar
  27. DeVries JW, Prosky L, Li B, Cho S (1999) A historic perspective on defining dietary fiber. Cereal Foods World 44:367–369Google Scholar
  28. Dharmaraj U, Malleshi NG (2010) Changes in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids of finger millet after hydrothermal processing. LWT Food Sci Technol. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2010.08.014
  29. Dykes L, Rooney LM (2006) Sorghum and millet phenols and antioxidants. J Cereal Sci 44:236–251Google Scholar
  30. Eastwood MA (1992) The physiological effect of dietary fiber. Annu Rev Nutr 12:19–35Google Scholar
  31. Englyst HN, Kingman SM, Cummings JH (1992) Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr 46:S33–S50Google Scholar
  32. Ferguson LR (2001) Role of plant polyphenols in genomic stability. Mutat Res 475:89–111Google Scholar
  33. Fornal L, Soral-Smietana M, Smietana Z, Szpendowski J (1987) Chemical characteristics and physicochemical properties of the extruded mixtures of cereal starches. Starch/Stärke 39(3):75–79Google Scholar
  34. Friedman M (1997) Chemistry, biochemistry and dietary role of potato polyphenols—a review. J Agric Food Chem 45:1523–1540Google Scholar
  35. Fu MX, Knecht KJW, Thorpe SR, Baynes JW (1992) Role of oxygen in cross linking and chemical modification of collagen by glucose. Diabetes 41:42–48Google Scholar
  36. Gee JM, Johnson IT, Lind L (1992) Physiological properties of resistant starch. Eur J Clin Nutr 46:S125–S131Google Scholar
  37. Geetha C, Parvathi EP (1990) Hypoglycaemic effect of millet incorporated breakfast on selected non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Indian J Nutr Diet 27:316–320Google Scholar
  38. Goni L, Garcia-Diz Manas E, Galixto FS (1996) Analysis of resistant starch: a method for foods and food products. Food Chem 56(4):445–449Google Scholar
  39. Gopalan C (1981) Carbohydrates in diabetic diet. India: Bulletin of Nutrition Foundation p3Google Scholar
  40. Hadimani NA, Malleshi NG (1993) Studies on milling, physicochemical properties, nutrient composition and dietary fiber content of millets. J Food Sci Technol 30:17–20Google Scholar
  41. Hegde PS, Chandra TS (2005) ESR spectroscopic study reveals higher free radical quenching potential in kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) compared to other millets. Food Chem 92:177–182Google Scholar
  42. Hegde PS, Chandrakasan G, Chandra TS (2002) Inhibition of collagen glycation and cross linking in vitro by methanolic extracts of Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum). J Nutr Biochem 13:517–521Google Scholar
  43. Hegde PS, Rajasekaran NS, Chandra TS (2005) Effects of the antioxidant properties of millet species on oxidative stress and glycemic status in alloxan-induced rats. Nutr Res 25:1109–1120Google Scholar
  44. Hilu KW, De Wet JMJ, Seigler D (1978) Flavonoid patterns and systematics in Eleusine. Biochem Syst Ecol 6:247–249Google Scholar
  45. Ishii T (1997) Structure and functions of feruloylated polysaccharides. Plant Sci 127:111–127Google Scholar
  46. Izydorczyk MS, Biliaderis CG (1995) Cereal arabinoxylans: advances in structure and physicochemical properties. Carbohydr Polym 28:33–48Google Scholar
  47. Jayaraj AP, Tovey FI, Clark CG (1976) The possibility of dietary protective factors in duodenal ulcer. II. An investigation into the effect of pre-feeding with different diets and of instillation of foodstuffs into the stomach on the incidence of ulcers in pylorus-ligated rats. Postgrad Med J 52:640–644Google Scholar
  48. Jones JM, Engleson J (2010) Whole grains: benefits and challenges. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 1:19–40Google Scholar
  49. Kanchana S, Shurpalekar KS (1988a) Effect of ragi (Eleusine coracana) husk on the gastrointestinal tract of albino rats. Nutr Rep Int 38(4):711–717Google Scholar
  50. Kanchana S, Shurpalekar KS (1988b) Effect of different levels of ragi (Eleusine coracana) husk in semisynthetic diet on the growth of albino rats. Nutr Rep Int 38(5):1067–1071Google Scholar
  51. Kavitha MS, Prema L (1995) Post prandial blood glucose response to meals containing different CHO in diabetics. Indian J Nutr Diet 32:123–126Google Scholar
  52. Kawabata K, Yamamoto T, Hara A, Shimizu M, Yamada Y, Matsunaga K, Tanaka T, Mori H (2000) Modifying effects of ferulic acid on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats. Cancer Lett 157:15–21Google Scholar
  53. Kawai K, Murayama Y, Okuda Y, Yamashita K (1987) Post prandial glucose, insulin and glucagon responses to meals with different nutrient compositions in NIDDM. Endocrinol Jpn 34(5):745–753, abstractGoogle Scholar
  54. Khetarpaul N, Chauhan BM (1991) Effect of natural fermentation on phytate and polyphenol content and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein of pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum). J Sci Food Agric 55:189–195Google Scholar
  55. Khodr B, Khalil Z (2001) Modulation of inflammation by reactive oxygen species: implications for aging and tissue repair. Free Radical Biol Med 30:1–8Google Scholar
  56. King L (2001) Impaired wound healing in patients with diabetes. Nurs Stand 15(38):39–45Google Scholar
  57. Knudsen KEB, Munck L (1985) Dietary fibre contents and compositions of sorghum and sorghum-based foods. J Cereal Sci 3:153–164Google Scholar
  58. Kurup PG, Krishnamurthy S (1993) Glycemic response and lipemic index of rice, ragi and tapioca as compared to wheat diet in human. Indian J Exp Biol 31:291–293Google Scholar
  59. Lakshmi Kumari P, Sumathy S (2002) Effect of consumption of finger millet on hyperglycemia in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) subjects. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 57:205–213Google Scholar
  60. Lebovitz HE (2001) Effect of the postprandial state on non traditional risk factors. Am J Cardiol 88:204–205Google Scholar
  61. Lee SH, Chung IM, Cha YS, Park Y (2010) Millet consumption decreased serum concentration of triglyceride and C-reactive protein but not oxidative status in hyperlipidemic rats. Nutr Res 30:290–296Google Scholar
  62. Lopez HW, Levrat MA, Guy C, Messanger A, Demigne C, Remesy C (1999) Effects of soluble corn bran arabinoxylans on cecal digestion, lipid metabolism, and mineral balance (Ca, Mg) in rats. J Nutr Biochem 10:500–509Google Scholar
  63. Maillard MN, Soum MH, Boivia P, Berset C (1996) Antioxidant activity of barley and malt: relationship with phenolic content. LWT Food Sci Technol 3:238–244Google Scholar
  64. Malleshi NG (2003) Decorticated finger millet (Eleusine coracana). US Patent No: 2003/0185951Google Scholar
  65. Malleshi NG, Chakravarthy MS, Kumar S (1995) A process for the preparation of milled malted flour. Indian Patent No:184879Google Scholar
  66. Malleshi NG, Hadimani NA, Rangaswami C, Klopfenstein CF (1996) Physical and nutritional qualities of extruded weaning foods containing sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet blended with mung beans and non-fat dried milk. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 49(3):181–189Google Scholar
  67. Mangala SL, Malleshi NG, Mahadevamma S, Tharanathan RN (1999) Resistant starch from different processed rice and ragi. Eur Food Res Technol 209:32–37Google Scholar
  68. Marlett JA (1990) Analysis of dietary fiber in human foods. In: Kritchevsky D, Bonfield C, Anderson JW (eds) Dietary fibre: Chemistry, physiology and health effects. Plenum, New York, pp 31–48Google Scholar
  69. Martinez-Flores HE, Chang YK, Bustos FM, Sinencio FS (1999) Extrusion-cooking of cassava starch with different fiber sources: effect of fibers on expansion and physicochemical properties. Adv Extrusions 271–278Google Scholar
  70. Matuschek E, Towo E, Svanberg U (2001) Oxidation of polyphenols in phytate reduced high tannin cereals: effect on different phenolic groups and on in vitro accessible iron. J Agric Food Chem 49:5630–5638Google Scholar
  71. McDonough CM, Rooney LW, Earp CA (1986) Structural characteristics of Eleusine coracana (finger millet) using scanning and fluorescence microscopy. Food Microstr 5:247–256Google Scholar
  72. McKeown NM (2002) Whole grain intake is favorably associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Clin Nutr 76:390–398Google Scholar
  73. Miyake T, Shibamoto T (1997) Antioxidative activities of natural compounds found in plants. J Agric Food Chem 45:1819–1822Google Scholar
  74. Monnier VM (1990) Nonenzymatic glycosylation, the Maillard reaction and the aging process. J Gerontol 45:105–111Google Scholar
  75. Mori H, Kawabata K, Yoshimi N (1999) Chemopreventive effects of ferulic acid and rice germ on large bowel carcinogenesis. Anticancer Res 19:3775–3779Google Scholar
  76. Morris JN, Marr JW, Clayton DG (1977) Diet and heart: a postscript. Br Med J 2:1307–1314Google Scholar
  77. Namikii M (1990) Antioxidants/antimutagens in food. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 29:273–300Google Scholar
  78. Navita G, Sumathi P (1992) Effect of primary processing on dietary fiber profile of selected millets. J Food Sci Technol 29(5):314–315Google Scholar
  79. Ohta T, Yamasaki S, Egashira Y, Sanada H (1994) Antioxidant activity of corn bran hemicellulose fragments. J Agric Food Chem 42:653–656Google Scholar
  80. Ohta T, Semboku N, Kuchii A, Egashira Y, Sanada H (1997) Antioxidant activity of corn bran cell-wall fragments in the LDL oxidation system. J Agric Food Chem 45:1644–1648Google Scholar
  81. Onyango C, Noetzold H, Bley T, Henle T (2004) Proximate composition and digestibility of fermented and extruded uji from maize-finger millet blend. LWT Food Sci Technol 37:827–832Google Scholar
  82. Onyango C, Noetzold H, Ziems A, Hofmann T, Bley T, Henle T (2005) Digestibility and antinutrient properties of acidified and extruded maize–finger millet blend in the production of uji. LWT Food Sci Technol 38:697–707Google Scholar
  83. Patel JC, Dhirawani MK, Dharne RD (1968) Ragi in the management of diabetes mellitus. Indian J Med Sci 22:28–29Google Scholar
  84. Periago MJ, Englyst HN, Hudson GJ (1996) The influence of thermal processing on the non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) content and in vitro digestibility of starch in peas (Pisum sativum L). LWT Food Sci Technol 29(1):33–40Google Scholar
  85. Periago MJ, Ros G, Casas JL (1997) Non-starch polysaccharides and in vitro starch digestibility of raw and cooked chick peas. J Food Sci 62(1):93–96Google Scholar
  86. Plaami SP (1997) Content of dietary fiber in foods and its physiological effects. Food Rev Int 13(1):29–76Google Scholar
  87. Prachure AA, Kulkarni PR (1997) Effect of food processing treatments on generation of resistant starch. Int J Food Sci Nutr 48:257–260Google Scholar
  88. Premavalli KS, Roopa S, Bawa AS (2004) Effect of variety and processing on the carbohydrate profile of finger millet. Trends Carbohydr Chem 9:109–113Google Scholar
  89. Rajasekaran NS, Nithya M, Rose C, Chandra TS (2004) The effect of finger millet feeding on the early responses during the process of wound healing in diabetic rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 1689:190–201Google Scholar
  90. Ramachandra G, Virupaksha TK, Shadaksharaswamy M (1977) Relationship between tannin levels and in vitro protein digestibility in finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn). J Agric Food Chem 25:1101–1104Google Scholar
  91. Ramananthan MK, Gopalan C (1957) Effect of different cereals on blood sugar levels. Indian J Med Sci 45:255–262Google Scholar
  92. Ramulu P, Udayasekhara Rao P (1997) Effect of processing on dietary fiber content of cereals and pulses. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 50(3):249–257Google Scholar
  93. Rao BSN, Prabhavati J (1982) Tannin content of foods commonly consumed in India and its influence on ionizable iron. J Sci Food Agric 33:89Google Scholar
  94. Rao PU, Deosthale YG (1988) In vitro availability of iron and zinc in white and colored ragi (Eleusine coracana): Role of tannin and phytate. Plants Foods Hum Nutr 38:35–41Google Scholar
  95. Rao MVSSTS, Muralikrishna G (2001) Non-starch polysaccharides and bound phenolic acids from native and malted finger millet (ragi, Eleusine coracana, Indaf-15). Food Chem 72:187–192Google Scholar
  96. Rao MVSSTS, Muralikrishna G (2002) Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of free and bound phenolic acids from native and malted finger millet (ragi, Eleusine coracana Indaf-15). J Agric Food Chem 50:889–892Google Scholar
  97. Rao MVSSTS, Muralikrishna G (2004) Structural analysis of arabionoxylans isolated from native and malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana, ragi). Carbohydr Res 339:2457–2463Google Scholar
  98. Rao RSP, Muralikrishna G (2006) Water soluble feruloyl arabinoxylans from rice and ragi: changes upon malting and their consequence on antioxidant activity. Phytochem 67:91–99Google Scholar
  99. Rao RSP, Muralikrishna G (2007) Structural characteristics of water-soluble ferulyl arabinoxylans from rice (Oryza sativa) and ragi (finger millet, Eleusine corcana): variations upon malting. Food Chem 104:1160–1170Google Scholar
  100. Rao RSP, Manohar RS, Muralikrishna G (2007) Functional properties of water-soluble non-starch polysaccharides from rice and ragi: effect on dough characteristics and baking quality. LWT Food Sci Technol 40:1678–1686Google Scholar
  101. Rasmussen O, Winther C, Hermansen K (1991) Glycemic responses to different types of bread in IDDM patients: studies at constant insulinaemia. Eur J Clin Nutr 45(2):97–103Google Scholar
  102. Rohn S, Rawel HM, Kroll J (2002) Inhibitory effects of plant phenols on the activity of selected enzymes. J Agric Food Chem 50:3566–3571Google Scholar
  103. Roopa S, Premavalli KS (2008) Effect of processing on starch fractions in different varieties of finger millet. Food Chem 106:875–882Google Scholar
  104. Sagum R, Arcot J (2000) Effect of domestic processing methods on the starch. Non-starch polysaccharides and in vitro starch and protein digestibility of 3 varieties of rice with varying levels of amylose. Food Chem 70:107–111Google Scholar
  105. Saldivar S (2003) Cereals: dietary importance. In: Caballero B, Trugo L, Finglas P (ed) Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Reino Unido: Academic Press, Agosto, London, pp 1027–1033Google Scholar
  106. Saito N, Sakai H, Sekihara H, Yajima Y (1998) Effect of an α-glucosidase inhibitor (voglibose), in combination with sulphonilureas, on glycemic control in type II diabetes patients. J Int Med Res 26:219–232Google Scholar
  107. Scalbert A (1991) Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochem 30:3875–3883Google Scholar
  108. Seetharam A, Ravikumar RL (1994) Blast resistance in finger millet—its inheritance and biochemical nature. In: Riley KW, Gupta SC, Seetharamn A, Mushonga JN (eds) Advances in small millets. International Science Publisher, New York, pp 449–465Google Scholar
  109. Shahidi F, Janitha PK, Wanasundara PD (1992) Phenolic antioxidants. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 32:67–103Google Scholar
  110. Shamai K, Bianco-Peled H, Shimoni E (2003) Polymorphism of resistant starch type III. Carbohydr Polym 54:363–369Google Scholar
  111. Shankara P (1991) Investigations on pre-harvest and post harvest aspects of finger millet. Ph. D. thesis, University of Mysore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  112. Sharavathy MK, Urooj A, Puttaraj S (2001) Nutritionally important starch fractions in cereal based Indian food preparations. Food Chem 75:241–247Google Scholar
  113. Shobana S, Malleshi NG (2007) Preparation and functional properties of decorticated finger millet (Eleusine coracana). J Food Eng 79:529–538Google Scholar
  114. Shobana S, Usha Kumari SR, Malleshi NG, Ali SZ (2007) Glycemic response of rice, wheat and finger millet based diabetic food formulations in normoglycemic subjects. Int J Food Sci Nutr 58(5):363–372Google Scholar
  115. Shobana S, Sreerama YN, Malleshi NG (2009) Composition and enzyme inhibitory properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) seed coat phenolics: mode of inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic amylase. Food Chem 115:1268–1273Google Scholar
  116. Shobana S, Harsha MR, Platel K, Srinivasan K, Malleshi NG (2010) Amelioration of hyperglycaemia and its associated complications by finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) seed coat matter in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Br J Nutr 104(12):1787–1795Google Scholar
  117. Siwela M, Taylor JRN, de Milliano WAJ, Duodu KG (2007) Occurrence and location of tannins in finger millet grain and antioxidant activity of different grain types. Cereal Chem 84:169–174Google Scholar
  118. Siwela M, Taylor JRN, de Milliano WAJ, Duodu KG (2010) Influence of phenolics in finger millet on grain and malt fungal load, and malt quality. Food Chem 121:443–449Google Scholar
  119. Sripriya G, Chandrasekharan K, Murty VS, Chandra TS (1996) ESR spectroscopic studies on free radical quenching action of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Food Chem 57(4):537–540Google Scholar
  120. Sripriya G, Antony U, Chandra TS (1997) Changes in carbohydrate, free amino acids, organic acids, phytate and HCl extractability of minerals during germination and fermentation of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Food Chem 58(4):345–350Google Scholar
  121. Tharanathan RN, Mahadevamma S (2003) Grain legumes—a boon to human nutrition. Trends Food Sci Technol 14:507–518Google Scholar
  122. Thebaudin JY, Lefebvre AC, Harrington M, Bourgeois CM (1997) Dietary fibre: nutritional and technological interest. Trends Food Sci Technol 8:41–48Google Scholar
  123. Thomas M, Leelamma S, Kurup PA (1990) Neutral detergent fiber from various foods and its hypocholesterolemic action in rats. J Food Sci Technol 27(5):290–293Google Scholar
  124. Thompson LU (1993) Potential health benefits and problems associated with antinutrients in foods. Food Res Int 26:131–149Google Scholar
  125. Toeller M (1994) α-Glucosidase inhibitors in diabetes: efficacy in NIDDM subjects. Eur J Clin Invest 24:31–35Google Scholar
  126. Tovey FI (1974) Aetiology of duodenal ulcer: an investigation into the buffering action and the effect on pepsin of bran and unrefined carbohydrate foods. Postgrad Med J 50:683Google Scholar
  127. Tovey FI (1994) Diet and duodenal ulcer. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 9:177–185Google Scholar
  128. Unlu E, Faller JF (1998) Formation of resistant starch by a twin screw extruder. Cereal Chem 75(3):346–350Google Scholar
  129. Viswanath V, Urooj A, Malleshi NG (2009) Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of finger millet polyphenols (Eleusine coracana). Food Chem 114:340–346Google Scholar
  130. Wadikar DD, Vasudish CR, Premavalli KS, Bawa AS (2006) Effect of variety and processing on antinutrients in finger millet. J Food Sci Technol 43(4):370–373Google Scholar
  131. Willett WC (1994) Diet and health: what should we eat? Science 264:532–537Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Palanisamy Bruntha Devi
    • 1
  • Rajendran Vijayabharathi
    • 1
  • Sathyaseelan Sathyabama
    • 1
  • Nagappa Gurusiddappa Malleshi
    • 2
  • Venkatesan Brindha Priyadarisini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbial BiotechnologyBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Grain Science and TechnologyCentral Food Technological Research Institute, CSIRMysoreIndia

Personalised recommendations