Bonding strength of plywood bonded using phenol formaldehyde mixed with wood bark powder nanofiller

  • SutrisnoEmail author
  • Ragil Widyorini
  • Tati Suryati Syamsudin
  • Eka Mulya Alamsyah
  • Bambang Sunendar Purwasasmita
Original Article


This paper investigates the wettability of selected wood species from Indonesian community forests, namely (Indonesian name–Latin name) surian (Toona sinensis), jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba), gmelina (Gmelina arborea.), Manglid (Manglietia glauca), rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis), and sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria). The study measures the contact angle and evaluates the suitability of these wood species for plywood production. Logs from a community forest were processed to convert into thin slices of veneer using the rotary cutting method at a plywood plant. Subsequently, the study analyzed the wetting behavior of the veneer samples resulting from a rotary process on tangential surfaces without smoothing treatment with distilled water. The veneer was then made into plywood using an adhesive nanofiller of phenol formaldehyde mixed with wood bark powder. Ball milling produced nanofillers from the bark of jabon, gmelina, and surian with nanoscale particle diameter size (10–1000 nm). The bonding strength of the plywood was evaluated under cyclic and dry test conditions according to Japanese Standards. The study shows that P. falcataria, H. brasiliensis, and A. cadamba have a smaller contact angle than T. sinensis, G. arborea, and M. glauca. Thus, the higher wettability of P. falcataria, H. brasiliensis, and A. cadamba results in a better adhesive spread and more intimate contact between the wood surface and the adhesive. However, the study found higher bonding strength values for H. brasiliensis and T. sinensis plywood using jabon nanofiller, followed by T. sinensis plywood using surian nanofiller and H. brasiliensis plywood using gmelina nanofiller.


Wettability Contact angle measurement Surian Jabon Gmelina 



The authors would like to thank the Directorate of Research and Community Services, Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia for their financial support under the research scheme of Postdoctoral Research for the Fiscal Year 2018. The authors also thank PT. Sumber Graha Sejahtera, Tangerang, Banten Province, Indonesia, for producing the plywood used in this study.


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Wood Science 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Life Sciences and TechnologyInstitut Teknologi BandungBandungIndonesia
  2. 2.Faculty of ForestryUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia
  3. 3.Faculty of Industrial TechnologyInstitut Teknologi BandungBandungIndonesia

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