Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 172–180 | Cite as

The chips generated during up-milling and down-milling of pine wood by helical router bits

  • Wayan DarmawanEmail author
  • Muhammad Azhari
  • Istie S. Rahayu
  • Dodi Nandika
  • Lumongga Dumasari
  • Indra Malela
  • Satoru Nishio
Original Article


Machining aspects with helical edge router bits (helix angle 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°) with a cutting circle diameter of 8 mm were studied. The purpose of the research work was to investigate chip formation and surface roughness characteristics in milling pine wood by the straight and helical edge bits. The chips generated could be classified into four types by sieving into spiral chip (5 mesh), flow chip (10 mesh), thin chip (30 mesh), and granule chip (< 30 mesh). The experimental results show that spiral chips were generated most often (on a weight percentage basis) by the bits during down-milling process. More flow and thin chips were produced by the bits during up-milling process. Better surface roughness was produced by bits during down-milling compared to up-milling. With increasing helix angle of the bits, the amount of spiral and flow chips increased and granule chips were reduced. The machined surface produced was better in roughness (lower Ra values) as the helix angle of the bits increased both in up-milling and down-milling processes.


Pine wood Straight and helical bits Up- and down-milling Chip type Surface roughness 



The authors thank the Directorate for Research and Community Service of the Ministry of RISTEK DIKTI of the Republic of Indonesia for the research grant (HIKOM) No:129/SP2H/PTNBH/DRPM/2018.


  1. Baowan P, Saikaew C, Wisitsoraat A (2017) Influence of helix angle on tool performances of TiAlN- and DLC-coated carbide end mills for dry side milling of stainless steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90(9–12):3085–3097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burek J, Zylka L, Plodzien M, Sulkowicz P, Buk J (2017) The effect of the cutting edge helix angle of the cutter on the cutting force components and vibration acceleration amplitude. Mechanik 11:971–973. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen WF, Lai HY (2002) A comprehensive engineering model for the design, manufacture and assembly of helical carpenter shapers. J Eng Manuf 216:1493–1504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cyra G, Tanaka C, Nakao T (1996) On-line control of router feed speed using acoustic emission. For Prod J 46(11/12):27–32Google Scholar
  5. Cyra G, Tanaka C, Yoshinobu M, Nishino Y (1998) Effects of helical angle of router bit on acoustic emission. J Wood Sci 44:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Darmawan W, Gottloeber C, Oertel M, Wagenfueher A, Fischer R (2011) Performance of helical edge milling cutters in planing wood. J Wood Wood Prod 69(4):565–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fernando de Moura L, Hernández RE (2006) Characteristics of sugar maple wood surfaces produced by helical planing. Wood Fiber Sci 38(1):166–178Google Scholar
  8. Fischer R, Gottlöber C, Rehm K, Rehm C (2005) A milling cutter as a screw: cutting instead of hacking. In: Proceedings of the 17th international wood machining seminar, 26–28 September, Rosenheim, pp 4–10Google Scholar
  9. Fischer R, Gottlöber C, Rehm K (2006) Schneiden statt hacken. HOB Die Holzbearb 53:63–66Google Scholar
  10. Gawronski T (2013) Optimisation of CNC routing operations of wooden furniture parts. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67:2259–2267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guo X, Li R, Cao P, Ekevad M, Cristóvão L, Marklund B, Grönlund A (2015) Effect of average chip thickness and cutting speed on cutting forces and surface roughness during peripheral up milling of wood flour/polyvinyl chloride composite. Wood Res 60(1):147–156Google Scholar
  12. Heisel U, Weiss E (1989) Einfluß von Schneidengeometrie und Bearbeitungsparameter auf die Staubentwicklung bei Kehlmaschinen. HOB Die Holzbearb 12:16–21Google Scholar
  13. Heisel U, Niemeyer W, Weiss E (1993) Lärm-und staubarmer Fräsprozeß mit wendelförmigen Schneiden. HOB Die Holzbearb 5:90–98Google Scholar
  14. Heydt F, Tuffentsammer K (1979) Lärmminderung an Dickenhobelmaschinen. HK Holz- und Kunststoffverarbeitung 5:384–388Google Scholar
  15. Hiziroglu S, Zhong ZW, Tan HL (2013) Measurement of bonding strength of pine, kapur and meranti wood species as function of their surface quality. Measurement 46:3198–3201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Iskra P, Hernandez RE (2010) Toward a process monitoring and control of a CNC wood router: development of an adaptive control system for routing white birch. Wood Fiber Sci 42(4):523–535Google Scholar
  17. Izamshah R, Yuhazri MY, Hadzley M, Amran M, Subramonian S (2013) Effects of end mill helix angle on accuracy for machining thin-rib aerospace component. Appl Mech Mater 315:773–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Izamshah R, Husna N, Hadzley M, Amran M, Shahir M, Amri M (2014) Effects of cutter geometrical features on machining polyetheretherketones (peek) engineering plastic. J Mech Eng Sci (JMES) 6:863–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Malkocoglu A (2007) Machining properties and surface roughness of various wood species planed in different conditions. Build Environ 42:2562–2567. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ozoegwu CG, Omenyi SN, Ofochebe SM, Achebe CH (2013) Comparing up and down milling modes of end-milling using temporal finite element analysis. Appl Math 3(1):1–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rudak P, Barcík S, Ekevad M, Rudak O, Vančo M, Štefková J (2018) Motion of chips when leaving the cutting zone during chipboard plane milling. BioResources 13(1):646–661Google Scholar
  22. Su WC, Wang Y (2002) Effect of the helix angle of router bits on chip formation and energy consumption during milling of solid wood. J Wood Sci 48:126–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Supadarattanawong S, Rodkwan S (2006) An investigation of the optimal cutting conditions in parawood (Heavea Brasiliensis) machining process on a CNC wood router. Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 40:311–319Google Scholar
  24. Zhong ZW, Hiziroglu S, Chan CTM (2013) Measurement of the surface roughness of wood based materials used in furniture manufacture. Measurement 46:1482–1487. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Wood Science 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bogor Agricultural UniversityBogorIndonesia
  2. 2.Purwokerto Muhammadiyah UniversityPurwokertoIndonesia
  3. 3.PT KanefusaKerawangIndonesia
  4. 4.PT KanefusaOhguchiJapan

Personalised recommendations