Perineal Wound Complications Following Extralevator Abdominoperineal Excision: Experience of a Regional Cancer Center
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Extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) results in a large perineal defect which needs reconstruction by a flap or biological mesh. The incidence of perineal wound complications is thought to be higher following an ELAPE compared to conventional abdominoperineal excision (APE). WE aimed to analyze the perineal wound complications following ELAPE in our institution. This was a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients who underwent an APE (conventional and ELAPE) procedure in our institution between 2012 and 2015. We retrieved the demographic data, treatment data, and pathological data from the case records. Reconstruction of the perineal defect after a prone perineal dissection was performed using a local muscle flap. The incidence of perinealwound complications, hospital stay, and time to initiate adjuvant chemotherapy was compared between the two groups. A total of 71 patients underwent APE over a period of 41 months of which 21 patients underwent ELAPE. The perineal dissection during ELAPE was done in the prone position in 18 patients and in the supine position in 3 patients. Perineal wound complications were seen in 9 patients (42%) who underwent ELAPE compared to 17 patients (34%) who underwent conventional APE (p = 0.52). The mean duration of hospital stay was significantly longer in patients who underwent ELAPE when compared to those who underwent conventional APE (22.9 ± 3.6 days vs 14.6 ± 1.0 days, p = 0.03). The median interval between ELAPE and initiation of adjuvant chemo was 54 days (range 32–120 days) compared to 50 days (range 30–100 days) in patients undergoing conventional APE. A delay in initiating adjuvant chemotherapy of more than 12 weeks was seen in 4 patients (19%) following ELAPE. The incidence of perineal wound complications following ELAPE in this study was comparable to that reported in literature. Although the hospital stay following ELAPE was significantly longer than that following conventional APE in our institution, it did not unduly prolong initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy. Improving the perineal reconstruction techniques and selecting patients who will benefit from ELAPE may help to reduce the wound complications.
KeywordsExtralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) Intra-op perforation (IOP) Circumferential resection margin (CRM) Perineal wound complications Gluteal muscle flap
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