Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 165–171

Early Detection of Breast, Cervical, Ovarian and Endometrial Cancers in Low Resource Countries: An Integrated Approach

Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s13193-011-0082-6

Cite this article as:
Shetty, M.K. & Longatto-Filho, A. Indian J Surg Oncol (2011) 2: 165. doi:10.1007/s13193-011-0082-6


The incidence of breast and gynecological cancers continues to increase in low and middle resource countries [LRC’S and MRC’s] with a disproportionately higher mortality rate compared to that in high resource countries. This has been attributed to factors such as an increased life span due to better control of communicable diseases and improved nutrition, as well as lifestyle and reproductive changes. A lack of public awareness and understanding of these cancers, absence of an organized screening program and a lack of accessible and effective treatment options, is responsible for the higher mortality rate. A practical approach of a combined program of integrating a well woman examination with screening for breast and cervical cancer and diagnostic evaluation for Ovarian and Endometrial cancer in symptomatic women is proposed in this article which can serve as a model to be studied for efficacy in low resource countries.


Screening Diagnosis Breast cancer Cervical Cancer Ovarian cancer Endometrial cancer 

Copyright information

© Indian Association of Surgical Oncology 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Professor of Radiology, Baylor College of MedicineWoman’s Hospital of TexasHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health SciencesUniversidade do MinhoBragaPortugal

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