Advertisement

Sun Protection Habits and Sunburn in Elite Aquatics Athletes: Surfers, Windsurfers and Olympic Sailors

  • Guillermo De Castro-Maqueda
  • J. V. Gutierrez-Manzanedo
  • J. G. Ponce-González
  • J. R. Fernandez-Santos
  • M. Linares-Barrios
  • M. De Troya-Martín
Article
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyse the sun exposure habits of elite aquatics athletes, together with their sunburn history and skin examination habits, taking into account differences by sex and between sports. A cross-sectional health survey was conducted at world championship events during which elite surfers, windsurfers and Olympic sailors from 30 different countries were invited to participate. The athletes were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire focused on sun protection habits, sun exposure and sports practices. The survey was completed by 240 athletes, 171 men (71.3%) and 69 women (28.8%), with a mean age of 22 years (SD 5.86) and skin phototypes I (6.3%), II (3.3%), III (22.0%), IV (32.5%), V (9.2%) and VI (1.7%). There were significant differences between male and female athletes in skin self-examination (p < 0.001) and in the use of sunglasses (p < 0.001). In sunburn history during the last season, there were significant differences (p < 0.001) among the three sports analysed, in both sexes. The mean rate of sunburn during the previous season was 76.7%, and 27.5% of participants reported having experienced three or more sunburns that lasted at least 1 day. This type of athlete is at high risk of sunburn and hence of future skin cancer. However, there is a general lack of awareness of this risk. This study highlights the need to inform such athletes and to raise awareness of the dangers, through educational interventions on the importance of protecting against sunburn in order to reduce the future incidence of skin cancer.

Keywords

Sun protection Skin cancer Sunscreen use Sunburn Aquatics athletes 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The researchers thank the officials and organisers of the different championships involved in this study (World Surf League, Professional Windsurf Association, Spanish Olympic Circuit) and all the athletes and other participants for their invaluable contributions to this project.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Kaskel PL, Lange U, Sander S, Huber MA, Utikal J, Leiter U, Krähn G, Meurer M, Kron M (2015) Ultraviolet exposure and risk of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma in Ulm and Dresden, Germany. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 29(1):134–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Cancer Society (2007) Cancer facts and figures 2007. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer SocietyGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moehrle M (2001) Ultraviolet exposure in the ironman triathlon. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33(8):1385–1386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mohrle M (2008) Outdoor sports and skin cancer. Clin Dermatol 26(1):12–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Amstrong BK, Kricker A (2001) The epidemiology of UV induced skin cancer. J Photocherm Photobiol B 63(1–3):8–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hall HL, McDavid K, Jorgensen CM, Kraft JM (2001) Factor associated with sunburn in white children aged 6 months to 11 years. Am J Prev Med 20(1):9–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hall HL, Jorgensen CM, McDavid K, Kraft JM, Breslow R (2001) Protection from sun exposure in US white children ages 6 months to 11 years. Public Health Rep 116(4):353–361PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fernández-Morano T, De Troya-Martín M, Rivas-Ruíz F, Blázquez-Sánchez N, Del Boz-González J, Fernández-Peñas P, Buendía-Eisman A (2014) Behavior, attitudes and awareness concerning sun exposure in adolescents on the Costa del Sol. Eur J Dermatol 24(1):85–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lawler S, McDermott L, O’Riordan D, Spathonis K, Eakin E, Leslie E, Owen N (2012) Relationships of sun-protection habit strength with sunscreen use and physical activity. Int J Environ Res Public Health 9(3):916–923PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mahé E, Beauchet A, De Paula M, Godin S, Haeffelin M, Bruant S, Fay-Chatelard F, Jégou F, Saiag P, Aegerther P (2011) Outdoor sports and risk of ultraviolet radiation-related skin lesions in children: evaluation of risks and prevention. Br J Dermatol 165(2):360–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Green A, Williams G, Neale R, Hart V, Leslie D, Parsons P, Marks GC, Gaffney P, Battistutta D, Frost C, Lang C, Russell A (1999) Daily sunscreen application and betacarotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 354(9180):723–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Darlington S, Williams G, Neale R, Frost C, Green A (2003) A randomized controlled trial to assess sunscreen application and beta carotene supplementation in the prevention of solar keratoses. Arch Dermatol 139(4):451–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fitzpatrick TB (1998) The validity and practicability of sun reactive skin types I through VI. Arch Dermatol 124(6):869–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Glanz K, Yaroch L, Dancel M, Saraiya M, Crane A, Buller D, Manne S, O’Riordan D, Heckman C, Hay J, Robinson J (2008) Measures of sun exposure and sun protection practices for behavioral and epidemiologic research. Arch Dermatol 144(2):217–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Glanz K, Mayer JA (2005) Reducing ultraviolet radiation exposure to prevent skin cancer methodology and measurement. Am J Prev Med 29(2):131–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    De Troya-Martín M, Blázquez-Sánchez N, Rivas-Ruíz F, Fernández-Canedo I, Rupérez-Sandoval A, Pons-Palliser J, Perea-Milla E (2009) Validación de un cuestionario en español sobre comportamientos, actitudes y conocimientos relacionados con la exposición solar: “Cuestionario a pie de playa”. Actas Dermosfiolgr 100:586–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R Core Team (2016) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. URL http://www.R-project.org/
  18. 18.
    Van der Pols JC, Williams GM, Pandeya N, Logan V, Green AC (2006) Prolonged prevention of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin by regular sunscreen use. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 15(12):2546–2548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moehrle ML, Heinrich L, Schmid A, Garbe C (2000) Extreme UV exposure of professional cyclists. Dermatology 201(1):44–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elwood JM, Koh HK (1993) Etiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and public health issues of melanoma. Curr Opin Oncol Mar 5(2):358–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Janssen E, Van Kann D, De Vries H, Lechner L, Van Osch L (2015) Sun protection during snow sports: an analysis of behavior and psychosocial determinants. Health Educ Res 30(3):380–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barbara J, Buller B, Andersen A, Scott M, Dignan M, Cutter G, Liu X, Maloy JZ (2014) Dissemination of Go Sun Smart in outdoor recreation: effect of program exposure on sun protection of guests at high altitude ski areas. J Health Commun 19(9):999–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Purim KS, Leite N (2014) Sports-related dermatoses among roadrunners in Southern Brazil. An Bras Dermatol 89(4):587–592PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fernández-Morano T, De Troya-Martín M, Rivas-Ruiz F, Fernández-Peña P, Padilla-España L, Sánchez-Blázquez N, Buendía-Eisman A (2017) Sun exposure habits and sun protection practices of skaters. J Canc Educ 32(4):734–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lawler S, Spathonis K, Eakin E, Gallois C, Leslie E, Owen N (2007) Sun exposure and sun protection behaviours among young adult sport competitors. Aust N Z J Public Health 31(3):230–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hamant ES, Adams BB (2005) Sunscreen use among collegiate athletes. J Am Acad Dermatol 53:237–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ganry O, Boche T (2005) Prevention practices and cancer screening among general practitioners in Picardy, France. Public Health 119(11):1023–1030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Andsoy II, Gul A, Sahin AO, Karabacak H (2013) What Turkish nurses know and do about skin cancer and sun protective behavior. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 14(12):7663–7668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Walker N, Love TD, Baker DF, Healey PB, Haszard J, Edwards AS, Black KE (2014) Knowledge and attitudes to vitamin D and sun exposure in elite New Zealand athletes: a cross-sectional study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 17;11(1):47Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Serrano MA, Cañada J, Moreno JC, Gurrea G (2014) Personal UV exposure for different outdoor sports. Photochem Photobiol Sci 13(4):671–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moehrle M, Koehle W, Dietz K, Lischka G (2000) Reduction of minimal erythema dose by sweating. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed (6, 6):260–262Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stokes RP, Diffey BL (1999) The water resistance of sunscreen and day-care products. Br J Dermatol 140(2):259–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association for Cancer Education 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education SciencesUniversity of CádizCádizSpain
  2. 2.Dermatology Service, Servicio Andaluz de SaludHospital Universitario Puerta del MarCádizSpain
  3. 3.Dermatology ServiceHospital Costa del Sol. Servicio Andaluz de SaludMarbellaSpain

Personalised recommendations