Advertisement

Journal of Cancer Education

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 111–115 | Cite as

Cancer Training for Frontline Healthcare Providers in Tanzania

  • Tara J. RickEmail author
  • Cassondra M. Deming
  • Janey R. Helland
  • Kari A. Hartwig
Article

Abstract

Cervical and breast cancer are responsible for the highest cancer-related mortality in Tanzania, although both are preventable or curable if diagnosed at an early stage. Limited knowledge of cervical cancer by clinic and dispensary level healthcare providers in Tanzania is a barrier for prevention and control strategies. The purpose of the study was to provide basic oncology training to frontline healthcare workers with a focus on cervical and breast cancer in order to increase knowledge. A 1-day cancer training symposium was conducted in Arusha, Tanzania, with 43 clinicians. Pre- and post-intervention surveys assessed cancer knowledge and confidence of clinicians in risk assessment. Sixty-nine percent of the participants reported never receiving any cervical cancer training in the past. A significant difference was found between the pre- and post-test in a majority of knowledge questions and in reported confidence recognizing signs and symptoms of breast and cervical cancer (p < 0.05). The 1-day community oncology training symposium was effective in delivering and increasing basic knowledge about cervical and breast cancers to these healthcare providers. The low level of baseline cancer knowledge among frontline medical providers in Tanzania illustrates the need for increased training around the country.

Keywords

Tanzania Breast cancer Cervical cancer Knowledge Training Frontline healthcare workers 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Conception and design by Tara Rick and St. Catherine University MPAS Class of 2016. We thank the Physician Assistant Foundation for funding the project. We thank Judith Merinyo and Richard Mwakatundu for administration assistance. We thank Dr. Mark Jacobson for host institution support at Arusha Lutheran Medical Centre. We thank St. Catherine University faculty, Heather Bidinger and Donna DeGracia.

References

  1. 1.
    American Cancer Society (2015) Global cancer facts and figures, third edn. American Cancer Society, Atlanta Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@research/documents/document/acspc-044738.pdf. Accessed March 22, 2017Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray F (2013) GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase no. 11 [internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed on March 22, 2017Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mlange R, Matovelo D, Rambau P, Kidenya B (2015) Patient and disease characteristics associated with late tumour stage at presentation of cervical cancer in northwestern Tanzania. BMC Womens Health 16:5. doi: 10.1186/s12905-016-0285-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Cancer Society (2011) Cancer in Africa. American Cancer Society, Atlanta Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-031574.pdf. Accessed March 22, 2017Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ministry of Health and Social Welfare [United Republic of Tanzania] (2011) National Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Strategic Plan 2011–2015. Tanzania: Dar es Salaam. pp. 1–64Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    World Health Organization (2013) WHO Guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer prevention. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/94830/1/9789241548694_eng.pdf. Accessed 22 Mar 2017
  7. 7.
    Jeronimo J et al (2016) Secondary prevention of cervical cancer: ASCO resource-stratified clinical practice guideline. J Global Oncol. doi: 10.1200/JGO.2016.006577
  8. 8.
    Shulman LN, Willett W, Sievers A et al (2010) Breast cancer in developing countries: opportunities for improved survival. J Oncol 595167:1–6. doi: 10.1155/2010/595167
  9. 9.
    Akuoko C, Armah E, Sarpong T, Quansah D, Amankwaa I, Boateng D (2017) Barriers to early presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer among African women living in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One 12(2):e0171024. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171024 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Morse EP, Maegga B, Joseph G, Miesfeldt S (2014) Breast cancer knowledge, beliefs, and screening practices among women seeking care at district hospitals in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Breast Cancer: Basic Clin Res 8:73. doi: 10.4137/BCBCR.S13745 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rick TJ, Merinyo JJ (2017) A call for breast cancer risk factor education in countries with limited health care resources. J Global Oncol. doi: 10.1200/JGO.2016.007781
  12. 12.
    Lyimo FS, Beran TN (2012 Jan 10) Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: three public policy implications. BMC Public Health 12(1):22. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-22 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Peters LM, Soliman AS, Bukori P, Mkuchu J, Ngoma T (2010) Evidence for the need of educational programs for cervical screening in rural Tanzania. J Cancer Educ 25(2):153–159. doi: 10.1007/s13187-009-0018-9 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Urasa M, Darj E (2011) Knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices of nurses at a regional hospital in Tanzania. African Health Sci 11(1):48–57Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    McCree R, Giattas MR, Sahasrabuddhe VV, Jolly PE, Martin MY, Usdan SL et al (2015) Expanding cervical cancer screening and treatment in Tanzania: stakeholders’ perceptions of structural influences on scale-up. Oncologist 20:621–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    World Health Organization: Country Office for Africa (2004) Health Systems Profile: United Republic of Tanzania. Available at: http://www.afro.who.int/en/tanzania/who-country-office-tanzania.html. Accessed 5 Mar 2017
  17. 17.
    World Bank. Physicians per 1,000 people. Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.MED.PHYS.ZS. Accessed 20 Feb 2017
  18. 18.
    Ministry of Health and Social Welfare Tanzania (2007) Tanzania service availability mapping project 2005–2006; Available at: http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/datacatalog/index.php/catalog/8/download/27. Accessed 16 Feb 2017
  19. 19.
    Mutyaba T, Mmiro FA, Weiderpass E (2006) Knowledge, attitudes and practices on cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago Hospital, Uganda. BMC Med Educ 6(1):13. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-6-13 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Health (2000) Curriculum for Assistant Medical Officer. Arusha Lutheran Medical Centre Website. Available at: http://www.almc.habari.co.tz/amo/AMO_Curriculum.pdf. Accessed 22 Mar 2017
  21. 21.
    Morhason-Bello IO, Odedina F, Rebbeck TR, Harford J, Dangou JM, Denny L, Adewole IF (2013) Challenges and opportunities in cancer control in Africa: a perspective from the African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer. Lancet Oncol 14(4):e142–e151. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70482-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perlman S, Wamai RG, Bain PA, Welty T, Welty E, Ogembo JG (2014) Knowledge and awareness of HPV vaccine and acceptability to vaccinate in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. PLoS One 9(3):e90912. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090912 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association for Cancer Education 2017
Corrected publication August/2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tara J. Rick
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cassondra M. Deming
    • 1
  • Janey R. Helland
    • 1
  • Kari A. Hartwig
    • 1
  1. 1.Masters of Physician Assistant Studies ProgramSaint Catherine UniversitySt. PaulUSA

Personalised recommendations