Journal of Cancer Education

, Volume 33, Issue 5, pp 1061–1068 | Cite as

Evaluation of Mammogram Parties as an Effective Community Navigation Method

  • Kristi L. Allgood
  • Bijou Hunt
  • Jacqueline M. Kanoon
  • Melissa A. Simon


Women of color do not have the same level of access to mammography services as their White counterparts, and this inequity may be one of the contributing factors to the documented racial disparity in breast cancer mortality in the US. The present study sought to assess the effectiveness of the mammogram party, a promising, but under-studied approach to increasing mammography uptake, particularly among under-served populations. The program targeted mammogram-eligible women in community settings on the west and southwest sides of Chicago, gathering basic demographic information, mammography history, and interest in assistance obtaining a mammogram. Women were navigated either through traditional one-on-one navigation or to a mammogram party. Seven outcome metrics were calculated for each type of navigation. We compared navigation outcomes for those who attended to those who did not attend a mammogram party using two-tailed t tests and chi-square tests. We found that the mammography completion rate for mammogram parties was comparable to that for standard one-on-one navigation (65.8 vs. 63.7%), which is more labor-intensive as evidenced by the number of contacts needed to successfully navigate a woman to mammography (10.9 vs. 15.0). Mammogram parties offer a unique opportunity for fellowship and support for clients who are particularly fearful of mammograms or identifying breast cancer. Programmatically, mammogram parties are an efficient way to complete several mammograms in 1 day. Having the option to both navigate women to mammogram parties or one-on-one navigation allows for more flexibility for scheduling and may ensure a completed a mammogram.


Mammogram parties/events Increase mammography use/uptake Community navigation Evaluation 



The program described herein was made possible by funding from the Avon Foundation for Women, Susan G. Komen Chicago, the Lynn Sage Cancer Research Foundation, Telligen Community Initiative, and The Barbara Bates Foundation. The authors wish to acknowledge Dr. Steve Whitman, Ami Shah, and Dr. Chela Sproles for their contributions to the program and its management and development.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Financial Disclosure

KLA, BH, and JK receive funds from Avon Foundation for Women to support salaries and grant activities. In addition, Lynn Sage Foundation funded portions of this program as did the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Chicago Affiliate. None of the authors’ salaries were supported through these grants. MS and JK are supported, in part, by the National Cancer Institute, grant numbers U54CA202995, U54CA202997, and U54CA203000. The authors have no additional financial disclosures.

Supplementary material

13187_2017_1206_MOESM1_ESM.docx (29 kb)
Fig. S1 The navigation process (DOCX 28 kb)


  1. 1.
    Hunt BR, Whitman S, Hurlbert MS (2014) Increasing black:white disparities in breast cancer mortality in the 50 largest cities in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol 38(2):118–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sium AL (2016) Screening for breast cancer: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 164(4):279–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rauscher GH, Allgood KL, Whitman S, Conant E (2012) Disparities in screening mammography services by race/ethnicity and health insurance. J Women's Health 21(2):154–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rebecca S-B, Miglioretti DL, Lurie N, Abraham L, Barbash RB, Strzelczyk J, Dignan M, Barlow WE, Beasley CM, Kerlikowske K (2006) Does utilization of screening mammography explain racial and ethnic differences in breast cancer? Ann Intern Med 144(8):541–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sabatino, Susan A., Briana Lawrence, Randy Elder, Shawna L. Mercer, Katherine M. Wilson, Barbara DeVinney, Stephanie Melillo, Michelle Carvalho, Stephen Taplin, Roshan Bastani, Barbara K. Rimer, Sally W. Vernon, Cathy Lee Melvin, Vicky Taylor, Maria Fernandez, Karen Glanz. 2012. Effectiveness of interventions to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers: nine updated systematic reviews for the guide to community preventive services. Am J Prev Med 43(1):97–118. ECrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baron RC, Rimer BK, Coates RJ, Kerner J, Kalra GP, Melillo S, Habarta N, Wilson KM, Chattopadhyay S, Leeks K (2008a) Client-directed interventions to increase community access to breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 35(1 Suppl):S56–S66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brouwers MC, De Vito C, Bahirathan L, Carol A, Carroll JC, Cotterchio M, Dobbins M, Lent B, Levitt C, Nancy L, Elizabeth McGregor S, Paszat L, Rand C, Wathen N (2011) Effective interventions to facilitate the uptake of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening: an implementation guideline. Implement Sci 6:112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baron RC, Rimer BK, Breslow RA, Coates RJ, Kerner J, Melillo S, Habarta N, Kalra GP, Chattopadhyay S, Wilson KM, Lee NC, Mullen PD, Coughlin SS, Briss PA (2008b) Client-directed interventions to increase community demand for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 35(1 Suppl):S34–S55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bonfill X, Castilljo MM, Vila MP, Marti J, Emparanza JI (2001) Strategies for increasing the participation of women in community breast cancer screening. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002943 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Community Preventive Task Force (2012) Updated recommendations for client- and provider-oriented interventions to increase breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. Am J Prev Med 43(1):92–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cam E, Rodgers KC, Kegler MC, Ayala M, Pinsker E, Haardorfer R (2014) A grey literature review of special events for promoting cancer screenings. BMC Cancer 14:454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wells KJ, Luque JS, Miladinovic B, Vargas N, Asvat Y, Roetzheim RG, Kumar A (2011) Do community health worker interventions improve rates of screening mammography in the United States? A systematic review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 20(8):1580–1598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pruthi S, Shmidt E, Sherman MM, Neal L, Wahner-Roedler D (2010) Promoting a breast cancer screening clinic for underserved women: a community collaboration. Ethnicity & Disease 20(4):463–466Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gellert K, Braun KL, Morris R, Starkey V (2006) The ‘Ohana Day Project: a community approach to increasing cancer screening. Prev Chronic Dis 3(3):A99PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goldsmith DF, Sisneros GC (1996) Cancer prevention strategies among California farmworkers: preliminary findings. J Rural Health 12(4 suppl):343–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Englisbe BH, Jimpson GE, Harper GR, Cohen M (1995) Encouraging mammography use among underserved women through a celebration of breast health. Am J Public Health 85(10):1446–1447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Byrne SK, Robles-Rodriguez E (2009) Educational parties as a strategy to promote breast health awareness and screening in underserved female populations. Oncol Nurs Forum 36(2):145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Livaudais JC, Coronado GD, Espinoza N, Islas I, Ibarra G, Thompson B (2010) Educating Hispanic women about breast cancer prevention: evaluation of a home-based promotora-led intervention. J Women's Health 19(11):2049–2056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Massin-Short SB, Grullon MA, Judge CM, Ruderman KR, Grullon M, Lora V (2010) A mobile mammography pilot project to increase screening among Latina women of low socioeconomic status. Public Health Rep 125(5):765–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hunt BR, Allgood KL, Sproles C, Whitman S (2013) Metrics for the systematic evaluation of community-based outreach. J Cancer Educ 28(4):633–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hunt BR, Allgood KL, Kanoon JM, Benjamins MR (2017) Keys to the successful implementation of community-based outreach and navigation: lessons from a breast health navigation program. Journal of Cancer Education 201 32(1):175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Highfield L, Hartman MA, Mullen PD, Rodriguez SA, Fernandez ME, Kay Bartholomew L (2015) Intervention mapping to adapt evidence-based interventions for use in practice: increasing mammography among African American women. Biomed Res Int 2015:160103. doi: 10.1155/2015/160103 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hwang AS, Atlas SJ, Cronin P, Ashburner JM, Shah SJ, He W, Hong CS (2015) Appointment “no-shows” are an independent predictor of subsequent quality of care and resource utilization outcomes. J Gen Intern Med 30(10):1426–1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Drake BF, Tannan S, Anwuri VV, Jackson S, Sanford M, Tappenden J, Goodman MS, Colditz GA (2015) A community-based partnership to successfully implement and maintain a breast health navigation program. J Community Health 40(6):1216–1223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Blackman DJ, Masi CM (2006) Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer mortality: are we doing enough to address the root causes? J Clin Oncol 24(14):2170–2178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oeffinger KC, Fontham ETH, Etzioni R, Herzig A, Michaelson JS, Shih Y-CT, Walter LC, Church TR, Flowers CR, LaMonte SJ, Wolf AMD, DeSantis C, Lortet-Tieulent J, Andrews K, Manassaram-Baptiste D, Saslow D, Smith RA, Brawley OW, Wender R (2015) Breast cancer screening for women at average risk: 2015 guideline update from the American Cancer Society. Journal of the Aamerican Medical Association 314(15):1599–1614CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association for Cancer Education 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristi L. Allgood
    • 1
  • Bijou Hunt
    • 2
  • Jacqueline M. Kanoon
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Melissa A. Simon
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Sinai Health SystemSinai Urban Health InstituteChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Sinai Health SystemSinai Urban Health InstituteChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Office of Community Engaged Research and Implementation Science (OCERIS)University of Illinois Cancer CenterChicagoUSA
  4. 4.University of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  5. 5.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyRobert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer CenterChicagoUSA
  6. 6.Department of Preventive MedicineNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations