Journal of Cancer Education

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 398–403 | Cite as

The Effect of Testicular Self-Examination Education on Knowledge, Performance, and Health Beliefs of Turkish Men

  • Hossein Asgar Pour
  • Dilara Kunter
  • Reza Norouzzadeh
  • Mohammad Reza Heidari
Article
  • 200 Downloads

Abstract

Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among young adult men and easily detected at an early stage by periodic testicular self-examination (TSE); however, health care providers seldom teach TSE, thus opportunities for early detection are missed. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TSE education on the knowledge, performance, and health beliefs of Turkish young men. This quasi-experimental follow-up research was conducted on 174 male Health Science university students in Turkey. The data was collected by a modified socio-demographic form and questionnaire, and the Turkish version of Champion Health Belief Model Scale which was performed at two stages: before and 3 months after education. Before education, 66.2% of the students did not know anything about TSE, and the main reason for not to perform TSE was the lack of knowledge prior to education. The results showed a significant increase in the perceived benefits in terms of TSE after education (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a positive improvement in the behavior of the students toward TSE was observed after education. These results indicate that TSE training is effective in young men, but TSE training should be repeated periodically for better efficacy. These results support that health professionals should have a more active role in the training of adult young men in colleges in terms of TSE.

Keywords

Testicular self-examination Education Knowledge Health beliefs 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the students of the School of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Funding

No specific grant for this research was received from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not for profit sectors.

References

  1. 1.
    Pinar G, Oksuz E, Beder A, Elbas NO (2011) Reliability and validity of the Turkish adaptation of the Champion’s Health Belief Model Scale at testicular cancer screening. TAD 9(2):89–96Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ugurlu Z, Akkuzu G, Karahan A, Beder A, Dogan N, Okdem S, Kav S (2011) Testicular cancer awareness and testicular self-examination among university students. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 12(3):695–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mcglynn KA, Trabert B (2012) Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer. Nat Rev Urol 9(6):339–349. doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2012.61 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gocgeldi E, Kocak N (2010) Evaluation of the education given to the young adult males about testicular self examination. Gulhane Med J 52(4):270–275Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ugbama HAA, Aburoma HLS (2011) Public awareness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination in academic environments: a lost opportunity. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 66(7):1125–1128. doi: 10.1590/S1807-59322011000700001 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asgar Pour H, Cam R (2014) Evaluation of men’s knowledge, attitude and behavior about testicular self-examination and testicular cancer. F N Nur J 22(1):33–38. doi: 10.17672/fnhd.59508 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yılmaz E, Kutlu AK, Cecen D (2009) Sağlık Yüksekokulu Öğrencilerinin Testis Kanseri ve Kendi Kendine Testis Muayenesi ile ilgili Bilgi, Tutum Ve Davranışları. Fırat Sağlık Hiz Derg 4(10):72–85. doi: 10.5455/pmb1-1330516108 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gleason AM (2006) Racial disparities in testicular cancer: impact on health promotion. J Transcult Nurs 17:58–64. doi: 10.1177/1043659605281980 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lechner L, Oenema A, de Nooijer J (2002) Testicular self-examination (TSE) among Dutch young men aged 15–19: determinants of the intention to practice TSE. Health Educ Research 17(1):73–84. doi: 10.1093/her/17.1.73 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Avci IA, Altinel B (2015) The validity and reliability of health belief scale for testicular cancer self-examination. Am J Mens Health:1–8. doi: 10.1177/1557988315611226
  11. 11.
    Hashemian M, Shokravi FA, Lamyian M, Hassanpour K, Akaberi A (2013) Reliability and validity of the champion’s health belief model scale for mammography among Iranian women with family history of breast cancer. Health Education and Health Promotion (Hehp) 1(3,4):19–31Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Akar SZ, Bebis H (2014) Evaluation of the effectiveness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination training for patient care personnel: intervention study. Health Educ Res 9(6):966–976. doi: 10.1093/her/cyu055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Taymoori P, Berry T (2009) The validity and reliability of champion’s health belief model scale for breast cancer screening behaviors among Iranian women. Cancer Nurs 32(6):465–472. doi: 10.1097/NCC.0b013e3181aaf124 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Altinel B, Avci IA (2013) The knowledge, beliefs and practises of university students on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination. TAF Prev Med Bulletin 12(4):365–370. doi: 10.5455/pmb.1-1330516108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ramim T, Mousavi S, Rosatmnia L, Bazyar A, Ghanbari V (2014) Student knowledge of testicular cancer and self-examination in a medical sciences university in Iran. Basic Clinical Cancer Res 6(3):7–11Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rudberg L, Nilsson S, Wikblad K, Carlsson M (2005) Testicular cancer and testicular self-examination: knowledge and attitudes of adolescent Swedish men. Cancer Nurs 28(4):256–262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Evans RE, Steptoe A, Wardle J (2006) Testicular self-examination: change in rates of practice in European university students, from 13 countries, over a 10-year period. J of Men’s Health and Gender 3(4):368–372. doi: 10.1016/j.jmhg.2006.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ward KD, Vander Weg MW, Read MC, Sell MA, Beech BM (2005) Testicular cancer awareness and self-examination among adolescent males in a community-based youth organization. Preventive Med 41(2):386–398. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.02.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Khadra A, Oakeshott P (2002) Pilot study of testicular cancer awareness and testicular self-examination in men attending two South London general practices. Fam Pract 19(3):294–296. doi: 10.1093/fampra/19.3.294 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Muliira JK, Nalwanga PB, Muliira RS, Nankinga Z (2012) Knowledge, perceived risk and barriers to testicular self-examination among male university students in Uganda. J of Men’s Health 9(1):36–44. doi: 10.1016/j.jomh.2011.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kuzgunbay B, Yaycioglu O, Soyupak B, Kayis AA, Ayan S, Yavascaoglu I (2013) Turkish study Group of Public Awareness in testicular cancer. Public awareness of testicular cancer and self-examination in Turkey: a multicenter study of Turkish Urooncology Society. InUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations Elsevier 31(3):386–391. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2011.01.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Onyiriuka AN, Imoebe FE (2013) Testicular self-examination among Nigerian adolescent secondary school boys: knowledge, attitudes and practices. J of Preventive Med and Hygiene 54(3):163–166. doi: 10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2013.54.3.403 Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cenesiz E, Atak N (2007) Türkiye’de saglik inanç modeli ile yapılmıs arastirmalarin degerlendirilmesi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi, Ankara Available from: http://www.scopemed.org/fulltextpdf.php?mno=277Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kilic S, Ucar M, Seymen E, Ince S, Erguvenli O, Yildirim A, Portakal N, Kuru N (2006) Kendi kendine meme muayenesi bilgi ve uygulamasinin GATA egitim hastanesinde gorevli hemsire, hemsirelik ogrencileri ve hastaneye muracaat eden kadin hastalarda arastirilmasi. Gulhane Tip Der 48:200–204 Available from: http://www.scopemed.org/fulltextpdf.php?mno=5320Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Karayurt O, Coskun A (2008) Cerit K (2008) Hemsirelerin meme kanseri ve kendi kendine meme muayenesine iliskin inancları ve uygulama durumu. J of Breast Health 1(4):15–20 http://www.thejournalofbreasthealth.com/sayilar/11/buyuk/991.pdfGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association for Cancer Education 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hossein Asgar Pour
    • 1
  • Dilara Kunter
    • 1
  • Reza Norouzzadeh
    • 2
  • Mohammad Reza Heidari
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Surgical Nursing, Aydin School of HealthAdnan Menderes UniversityAydınTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Midwifery and NursingShahed UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations