Journal of Cancer Education

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 375–382 | Cite as

Effect of Planned Follow-up on Married Women’s Health Beliefs and Behaviors Concerning Breast and Cervical Cancer Screenings

Article

Abstract

The objective of this study was to identify the effect of planned follow-up visits on married women’s health beliefs and behaviors concerning breast and cervical cancer screenings. The study was conducted using the single-group pre-test/post-test and quasi-experimental study designs. The sample of the study included 153 women. Data were collected using a Personal Information Form, the Health Belief Model (HBM) Scale for Breast Cancer Screening, the HBM Scale for Cervical Cancer Screening, and a Pap smear test. Data were collected using the aforementioned tools from September 2012 to March 2013. Four follow-up visits were conducted, nurses were educated, and telephone reminders were utilized. Friedman’s test, McNemar’s test, and descriptive statistics were used for data analyzing. The frequency of performing breast self-examination (BSE) at the last visit increased to 84.3 % compared to the pre-training. A statistically significant difference was observed between the pre- and post-training median values in four subscales except for the subscale of perceived seriousness of cervical cancer under “the Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test” (p < 0.001). The rate of performing BSE significantly increased after the training and follow-up visits. Also, the rate of having a Pap smear significantly increased after the follow-up visits.

Keywords

Breast cancer screening Cervical cancer screening Health belief Follow-up 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This Project numbered TSD-12-4046 was supported by Erciyes University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The ethical approval for the study was provided by the Ethics Committee of Medical Faculty, Erciyes University (Decision Number 2011/385). The researchers explained the aim of study to the women.

References

  1. 1.
    Bray F (2014) Transitions in human development and the global cancer burden. In: Wild CP, Stewart B (eds) World cancer report 2014. Lyon, International Agency for Research on CancerGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Basaran BB, Guler C, Yentur GK, Birge B, Pulgat E, Ekinci BM (2013) Annual health statistics 2012. T.C. Ministry of Health, Ankara, p Report No.: SB-SAG-2013/01–917Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Cancer Society. Cancer facts for women [Internet] (2015) Cancer facts for women; [cited 2015 Sep 29]. Available from: http://www.cancer.org/healthy/findcancerearly/womenshealth/cancer-facts-for-women
  4. 4.
    Tuncer M (2009) National cancer programme 2009–2015. T.C. Ministry of Health, Ankara, p Report No.:760Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yaren A, Ozkilinc G, Guler A, Oztop I (2008) Awareness of breast and cervical cancer risk factors and screening behaviours among nurses in rural region of Turkey. European Journal of Cancer Care 17:278–284. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2354.2007.00856.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gencturk N (2013) The status of knowledge and practice of early diagnosis methods for breast cancer by women healthcare professionals. The Journal of Breast Health. 9(1):5–8Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Golbasi Z, Kutlar Z, Akdeniz H (2007) The effect of education given by nursing students on womens’ knowledge and practice of breast cancer/breast self-examination in a public training center. The Journal of Breast Health. 3(2):53–56Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kunt H, Bilge SR (2013) Determination of breast cancer incidence and risk factors in women in Kutahya province: the results of screening for the year 2010–2011. The Journal of Breast Health. 9:130–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cam O, Gumus BA (2011) Relationships between early diagnosis attitudes in cervical cancer of women and levels of self-esteem, body perception and hopelessness. Nobel Medicus 7(3):46–52Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koca B (2010) Breast self-examination in terms of knowing the importance of women’s health. New Journal of Medicine 27:10–14Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bicen YH, Aksuyek H (2012) Fieldwork about importance of awareness in early diagnosis of breast cancer in Bursa. The Journal of Breast Health. 8(2):76–80Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Janz NK, Becker MH (1987) The health belief model: a decade later. Health Educ Q 11(2):1–47Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aydogdu NG, Bahar Z (2011) The effects of using health belief and health promotion models in low-income women with regard to breast and cervical cancer early detection behaviour. Dokuz Eylul University School of Nursing Electronic Journals 4(1):34–40Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Karayurt O, Coskun A, Cerit K (2008) Nurses’ beliefs about breast cancer and breast self-examination and their breast self-examination performance. The Journal of Breast Health 4(2):15–20Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Champion V (1984) Instrument development for health belief model constructs. Adv Nurs Sci 6(3):73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Avcı IA, Gozum S (2009) Comparison of two different educational methods on teachers’ knowledge, beliefs and behaviors regarding breast cancer screening. Eur J Oncol Nurs 13:94–101. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2009.01.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Guvenc G, Akyuz A, Acıkel C (2010) Health Belief Model Scale for cervical cancer and Pap smear test: psychometric testing. J Adv Nurs 67(2):428–437. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05450.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Celik GO, Malak AT, Ozturk Z, Yilmaz D (2009) Analysis on the condition of women in post menopausal period on their application of breast self-examination and having mammography and Pap smear screening. Anatolian Journal of Clinical Investigation 3(3):159–163Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Azami-Aghdash S, Ghojazadeh M, Sheyklo SG, Daemi A, Kolahdouzan K, Mohseni M, et al. (2015) Breast cancer screening barriers from the womans perspective: a meta-synthesis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 16(8):3463–3471CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tuong-Vi H (2007) Effects of an educational intervention on breast cancer screening and early detection in Vietnamese American Women. Oncol Nurs Forum 34(2):481Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dundar PE, Ozmen D, Ozturk B, Haspolat G, Akyildiz F, Coban S, et al. (2006) The knowledge and attitudes of breast self-examination and mammography in a group of women in rural area in western Turkey. BioMed Central Cancer 6:43–52. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-6-43 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath KV (2008) Health behavior and health education: theory, research and practice. 4th ed. Champion Victoria L & Skinner Celette S; The health belief model, San Francisco, p 46–65Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fernandez ME, Gonzales A, Tortolero-Luna G, Williams J, Saavedra-Embesi M, Chan W, et al. (2009) Effectiveness of cultivando la salud: a breast and cervical cancer screening promotion program for low-income Hispanic women. Am J Public Health 99(3):936–943. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.136713 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lu ZJ (2001) Effectiveness of breast self-examination nursing interventions for Taiwanese community target groups. J Adv Nurs 34:163–170. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01741.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Champion VL, Menon U (1997) Predicting mammography and breast selfexamination in African American women. Cancer Nurs 20:315–322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jirojwong S, MacLennan R (2003) Health beliefs, perceived self-efficacy, and breast selfexamination among Thai migrants in Brisbane. J Adv Nurs 41(2):241–249. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02552.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tuzcu A, Bahar Z (2012) Effect of using the health belief model and the health promotion model in migrant women on change in early diagnosis behaviors of breast cancer. Journal of Ege University Nursing Faculty. 28(2):91–103Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Offman J, Myles J, Aryanayagam S, Colorado Z, Sharp M, Cruice M, North BV, Shiel S, Baker T, Jeffries R, Binysh K, Duffy SW (2014) A telephone reminder intervention to improve breast screening information and access. Public Health 214:1017–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ozmen D, Ozsoy S (2009) Developing a valid and reliable instrument to examine attitudes toward early diagnosis of cervical cancer by using health belief model approach. Journal of Ege University Nursing Faculty 25(2):51–69Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tung WC, Nguyen DHT, Tran T (2008) Applying the transtheoretical model to cervical cancer screening in Vietnamese-American women. Int Nurs Rev 2:73–80. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-7657.2007.00602.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association for Cancer Education 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahsan Kolutek
    • 1
  • Ilknur Aydin Avci
    • 2
  • Umit Sevig
    • 3
  1. 1.Sema-Vefa Kucuk School of HealthNevsehir Haci Bektas Veli UniversityNevşehirTurkey
  2. 2.Samsun School of Health, Nursing DepartmentOndokuz Mayis UniversitySamsunTurkey
  3. 3.Erciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey

Personalised recommendations