Advertisement

Journal of Cancer Education

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 167–173 | Cite as

Subjective and Objective Cancer Screening Knowledge Among White- and Blue-Collar Chinese Midlife Adults

  • Su-I HouEmail author
Article
  • 133 Downloads

Abstract

Cancer is the leading cause of death among Chinese, yet little is known about cancer knowledge among this population. The study described the subjective and objective cancer screening knowledge among white- versus blue-collar Chinese midlife adults. A convenient sample of white-collar adults age 40+ years was recruited from government and academic agencies; and blue-collar adults age 40+ years were recruited from manufactory companies in Taiwan. An eight-item cancer screening knowledge test (CSKT) was used to measure objective knowledge and one five-point Likert scale item for assessing subjective (perceived) cancer screening knowledge. A total of 208 white- and 533 blue-collar workers completed the survey during 2008–2011. Mean ages between groups were comparable (41.1 versus 46.3 years), as well as family cancer history (41.5 %). About 76 % of the white-collar and 43 % of the blue-collar adults had college education. The mean score of the CSKT was lower in the blue-collar versus white-collar workers, 5.4 (SD = 1.76) versus 6.1 (SD = 1.40), indicating on average, 68 versus 76 % of the participants answered the cancer knowledge correctly. The subjective knowledge levels were, however, higher among the blue-collar workers (mean rating of 3.22 versus 2.78). The CSKT showed a good mix of relatively easy and moderately difficult items in both groups. Study showed that overall cancer screening knowledge was low among Chinese midlife adults. Although blue-collar workers scored lower on CSKT, the perceived knowledge level was higher. Results also suggest attention to communicating cancer screening information among Chinese blue-collar midlife workers in particular.

Keywords

Cancer knowledge Chinese Midlife adults Subjective knowledge Workplace 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was partially supported by a research grant from the Chiang-Ching Kuo Foundation (CCKF) for International Scholarly Exchange. The authors would like to thank the help from Dr. Hsiao, T.J. for his coordination on the data collection at the blue-collar worker sites in Taiwan. Special thanks also goes to Drs. Ho-Shong Hou and Peng-His Hou for their support and coordination on the data collection at the white-collar worker sites in Taiwan.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The study was approved by the human subject review board of the principal investigator’s institution.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Liu L (2014) The global significance of China’s cancer burden and control effort. Ann Transl Med 2(7):64PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    .Stewart, B. and C.P. 2014. Wild, World Cancer Report 2014. Lyon, France: International Agency or Research on Cancer (IARC) Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen MS (2005) Cancer health disparities among Asian Americans: what we do and what we need to do. Cancer 104(12 Suppl):2895–2902CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    .Cancer Research U.K.: World cancer factsheet. 2012. International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon, France: International Agency or Research on Cancer (IARC) Press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    .U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2016). Published recommendations. Accessed Mar. 9, 2016, http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/BrowseRec/Index
  6. 6.
    Hou S-I, Hou PH (2014) Developing and validating a PHSU belief inventory (PHSU-BI) among Chinese middle-aged white-and blue-collar workers. Int J Health Wellness Soc 4(1):13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hou S, Hou. PH, Hou HS (2014) The impact of a colorectal cancers worksite screening intervention on knowledge, screening beliefs, and uptakes among middle- and older-age employees in Taiwan. J Cancer Educ 29(suppl 1):S12–S13Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hou S-I, Fernandez M, Chen P-H (2003) Correlates of cervical cancer screening among women in Taiwan. Health Care Women Int 24(5):384–398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hou S-I, Chen P-H (2004) Home-administered fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening among worksites in Taiwan. Prev Med 38(1):78–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Soerjomataram I, De Vries E, Pukkala E, Coebergh JW (2007) Excess of cancers in Europe: a study of eleven major cancers amenable to lifestyle change. Int J Cancer 120(6):1336–1343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hou S-I, Fernandez M, Baumler E, Parcel G (2002) Effectiveness of an intervention to increase Pap test screening among Chinese women in Taiwan. J Community Health 27(4):277–290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hou S, Chen P-H (2005) Cancer screening beliefs and reactions to an innovative colorectal cancer screening kit among Chinese worksite population. Methods Inf Med 44(2):315–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    World Health Organization. 2014. Comprehensive cervical cancer control—a guide to essential practice second edition. Geneva: WHO Press. Accessed May 15, 2016. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/144785/1/9789241548953_eng.pdf?ua%3d1.
  14. 14.
    Jia Y, Li S, Yang R, Zhou H, Xiang Q, Hu T, Zhang Q, Chen Z, Ma D, Feng L (2013) Knowledge about cervical cancer and barriers of screening program among women in Wufeng County, a high-incidence region of cervical cancer in China. PLoS One 8(7):e67005CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nwankwo KC, Aniebue U, Aguwa U, N E, Anarado AN, Agunwah E (2011) Knowledge attitudes and practices of cervical cancer screening among urban and rural Nigerian women: a call for education and mass screening. Eur J Cancer Care 20(3):362–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shea J, Klainin-Yobas P, Mackey S (2013) Young Singaporean women’s knowledge of cervical cancer and pap smear screening: a descriptive study. J Clin Nurs 22(23–24):3310–3319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yanikkerem E, Goker A, Piro N, Dikayak S, Koyuncu FM (2013) Knowledge about cervical cancer, pap test and barriers towards cervical screening of women in Turkey. J Cancer Educ 28(2):375–383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leung DY, Wong EM, Chan CW (2016) Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening among community-dwelling Chinese older people: testing a comprehensive model using a descriptive correlational study. Eur J Oncol Nurs 21:17–23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oliver JS, Ewell P, Nicholls K, Chapman K, Ford S (2016) Differences in colorectal cancer risk knowledge among Alabamians: screening implications. Oncol Nurs Forum 43(1):77–85CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Powe BD, Ntekop E, Barron M (2004) An intervention study to increase colorectal cancer knowledge and screening among community elders. Public Health Nurs 21(5):435–442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shim M, Kelly B, Hornik R (2006) Cancer information scanning and seeking behavior is associated with knowledge, lifestyle choices, and screening. J Health Commun 11(S1):157–172CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Subramanian S, Klosterman M, Amonkar MM, Hunt TL (2004) Adherence with colorectal cancer screening guidelines: a review. Prev Med 38(5):536–550CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hou S-I (2004) Objective and subjective knowledge and HIV testing among college students. J Health Educ 35(6):328–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Phillips KA (1993) Subjective knowledge of AIDS and use of HIV testing. Am J Public Health 83(10):1460–1462CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gámbaro A, Ellis AC, Prieto V (2013) Influence of subjective knowledge, objective knowledge and health consciousness on olive oil consumption—a case study. Food Nutr Sci 4(4):445–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Carlson JP, Vincent LH, Hardesty DM, Bearden WO (2009) Objective and subjective knowledge relationships: a quantitative analysis of consumer research findings. J Consum Res 35(5):864–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    .Get screened at 40. 2013. American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). Accessed Aug 22 2013. http://www.geteyesmart.org/eyesmart/living/screening.cfm
  28. 28.
    Wilson MG, Holman PB, Hammock A (1996) A comprehensive review of the effects of worksite health promotion on health-related outcomes. Am J Health Promot 10(6):429–435CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    .Hou, S and Liu L. 2015.Objective and subjective cancer knowledge among faith-based younger vs. older Chinese adults. Paper presented at GSA’s 68th Annual Scientific Meeting, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gummersbach E, Schmitten J, Mortsiefer A, Abholz H-H, Wegscheider K, Pentzek M (2015) Willingness to participate in mammography screening a randomized controlled questionnaire study of responses to two patient information leaflets with different factual content. Deutsches Arzteblatt International 112:61–68PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rasu R, S R, Rianon NJ, Shahidullah SM, Faisel AJ, Selwyn BJ (2011) Effect of educational level on knowledge and use of breast cancer screening practices in Bangladeshi women. Health Care Women Int 32(3):177–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gurdal SO, Saracoglu GV, Oran ES, Yankol Y, Soybir GR (2012) The effects of educational level on breast cancer awareness: a cross-sectional study in Turkey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 13(1):295–300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Blackwell DL, Martinez ME, Gentleman JF, Sanmartin C, Berthelot JM (2009) Socioeconomic status and utilization of health care services in Canada and the United States: findings from a binational health survey. Med Care 47(11):1136–1146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Monnat SM (2014) Race/ethnicity and the socioeconomic status gradient in women’s cancer screening utilization: a case of diminishing returns. J Health Care Poor Underserved 25(1):332–356CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association for Cancer Education 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Doctoral Program in Public Affairs/Health Management & Informatics, College of Health & Public AffairsUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA

Personalised recommendations