Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Burkina Faso: Needs for Patient and Professional Education
Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of cancer deaths for women in low-income African countries, such as Burkina Faso. Given that cervical cancer is a preventable disease through early detection and vaccination, this study aimed at understanding the barriers to cervical cancer early detection in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Women seeking screening and treatment for cervical cancer (n = 351) during the period of May–August 2014, at the Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital, were interviewed about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward cervical cancer. Interview questions elicited information about sociodemographic of participants, history of screening, knowledge of cervical cancer, and attitudes toward cervical screening. Scores were assigned to responses of questions and knowledge, and tertitles of distributions were used for comparison. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to predict cervical screening. Study participants were relatively young (37.5 ± 10.7 years) and predominately resident of urban areas (83.8 %), and over half had no or less than high school education. Over 90 % of participants had heard about cervical cancer, and about 55 % of them had intermediate-level knowledge of the disease, its screening, and/or risk factors. Knowledge level was lower among rural than urban residents. Predictors of screening included higher level of education (odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.48–3.23), older age (OR = 1.1; 95 % CI 1.06–1.12), higher socioeconomic standard (SES) (OR = 1.5; 95 % CI 1–2.37), urban residence (OR = 2.0; 95 % CI 1.19–3.25), encouragement for screening by a health care worker (1.98; 95 % CI 1.06–3.69), and employment (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI 1.13–3.11). Low awareness and socioeconomic barriers lead to underutilization of screening services of women. Motivation and education by healthcare workers are important factors for increasing screening rates. Organized patient and professional education programs in gynecologic services are warranted for improving screening in Burkina Faso and other low-resource countries in Africa.
KeywordsBurkina Faso Cervical cancer Screening Barriers Knowledge Attitude Practice developing countries
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
This work was entirely supported by the Cancer Epidemiology Education in Special Populations (CEESP) Program of the University of Nebraska Medical Center through funding from the National Cancer Institute (R25CA112383). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Cancer Institute.
- 1.International Agency for Research on Cancer (2013) Latest world cancer statistics global cancer burden rises to 14.1 million new cases in 2012: marked increase in breast cancers must be addressed. World Health Organization 1-3Google Scholar
- 5.Awolude OA, Morhason-Bello IO, Denny LA, Adewole IF (2013) Human papillomavirus infection and related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa: burden and tools for prevention. Vaccine 31(Suppl 5): vii-xGoogle Scholar
- 10.Central Intelligence Agency (2014) The world factbook: Africa, Burkina Faso. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/goes/uv.htm
- 24.White HL, Mulambia C, Sinkala M, Mwanahamuntu MH, Parham GP, Kapambwe S, Moneyham L, Kempf MC, Chamot E (2012) Motivations and experiences of women who accessed “see and treat” cervical cancer prevention services in Zambia. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 33:91–98CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 25.Raza SA, Franceschi S, Pallardy S, Malik FR, Avan BI, Zafar A, Ali SH, Pervez S, Serajuddaula S, Snijders PJ, van Kemenade FJ, Meijer CJ, Shershah S, Clifford GM (2010) Human papillomavirus infection in women with and without cervical cancer in Karachi, Pakistan. Br J Cancer 102:1657–1660CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 31.Wamai RG, Ayissi CA, Oduwo GO, Perlman S, Welty E, Manga S, Ogembo JG (2012) Assessing the effectiveness of a community-based sensitization strategy in creating awareness about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among parents in North West Cameroon. J Community Health 37:917–926CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 32.Balogun MR, Odukoya OO, Oyediran MA, Ujomu PI (2012) Cervical cancer awareness and preventive practices: a challenge for female urban slum dwellers in Lagos, Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health 16Google Scholar
- 34.Castillino RB, Raddi SA, Dalal A (2012) Assessment of knowledge and perceived barriers to prevention of cervical cancer among women attending gynecology OPD at KLE’s Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Center, Belgaum, Karnataka, with a view to develop an information booklet. J South Asian Fed Obstet Gynecol 4:169–171Google Scholar