Journal of Cancer Education

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 130–137 | Cite as

Knowledge and Acceptability of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Karnataka, India

  • Martha P. Montgomery
  • Tanaka Dune
  • Prasanna K. Shetty
  • Avinash K. ShettyEmail author


Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15 % had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4 % of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21 %) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.8–10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95 % CI 0.7–3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.


Human papillomavirus HPV vaccination Cervical cancer Pap smear Knowledge 


Author’s Contribution

MPM conducted data analysis, literature review, and drafting of the manuscript. TD contributed to the study design, implementation, and data collection, and edited the manuscript draft. PKS contributed to the study design and implementation, and edited the manuscript draft. AKS supervised the research design and implementation, and provided input on the data analysis and drafting of the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final article.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martha P. Montgomery
    • 1
  • Tanaka Dune
    • 1
  • Prasanna K. Shetty
    • 2
  • Avinash K. Shetty
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsWake Forest School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, K.S. Hegde Medical AcademyNitte UniversityMangaloreIndia

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