Journal of Cancer Education

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 598–603 | Cite as

The Enduring Need for the Pain Resource Nurse (PRN) Training Program

  • Marcia Grant
  • Betty Ferrell
  • Jo Hanson
  • Virginia Sun
  • Gwen Uman
Article

Abstract

Nurses play a pivotal role in pain management but academic nursing curricula remain lacking in basic pain management principles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of the City of Hope Pain Resource Nurse (PRN) Training Course on nursing pain management practice. An online survey, comparing RNs’ pre- and post-training practice, assessed the long-term impact of the course on content application and dissemination. Participants with 1–9 years post-course attendance (2002–2010) were invited to complete a brief survey (N = 783). Respondents (N = 180; 23%) reported significant improvements in their comfort with basic opioid administration (p < .001). Relaxation was the most common non-drug intervention used by respondents. Pain assessment content was most frequently applied to practice (97%). Most respondents (89%) disseminated course content to others within their own institutions. PRN-trained nurses expressed improved confidence in pain management and attributed course content to the improvement in their practice behavior.

Keywords

Pain Nursing Education 

References

  1. 1.
    Fink R, Gates R (2010) Pain assessment. In: Ferrell B, Coyle N (eds) Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 137–160Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    McCaffery M, Ferrell BR (1996) Correcting misconceptions about pain assessment and use of opioid analgesics: educational strategies aimed at public concerns. Nurs Outlook 44(4):184–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wilson B (2007) Nurses’ knowledge of pain. J Clin Nurs 16(6):1012–1020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Linkewich B, Sevean P, Habjan S, Poling M, Bailey S, Kortes-Miller K (2007) Educating for tomorrow: enhancing nurses’ pain management knowledge. Can Nurse 103(4):24–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Twycross A (2002) Educating nurses about pain management: the way forward. J Clin Nurs 11(6):705–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ferrell B, Virani R, Grant M, Vallerand A, McCaffery M (2000) Analysis of pain content in nursing textbooks. J Pain Symptom Manage 19(3):216–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McCaffery M, Ferrell B, O’Neil-Page E, Lester M (1990) Nurses’ knowledge of opioid analgesic drugs and psychological dependence. Cancer Nurs 13(1):21–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McCaffery M, Ferrell BR, Pasero C (2000) Nurses’ personal opinions about patients’ pain and their effect on recorded assessments and titration of opioid doses. Pain Manag Nurs 1(3):79–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cox F (2010) Veterinary surgeons receive more pain relief education than nurses. Nurs Times 106(45):8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huth MM, Gregg TL, Lin L (2010) Education changes Mexican nurses’ knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain. Pain Manag Nurs 11(4):201–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lin PC, Chiang HW, Chiang TT, Chen CS (2008) Pain management: evaluating the effectiveness of an educational programme for surgical nursing staff. J Clin Nurs 17(15):2032–2041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Michaels TK, Hubbartt E, Carroll SA, Hudson-Barr D (2007) Evaluating an educational approach to improve pain assessment in hospitalized patients. J Nurs Care Qual 22(3):260–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Paice JA, Barnard C, Creamer J, Omerod K (2006) Creating organizational change through the Pain Resource Nurse program. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 32(1):24–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Courtenay M, Carey N (2008) The impact and effectiveness of nurse-led care in the management of acute and chronic pain: a review of the literature. J Clin Nurs 17(15):2001–2013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tornkvist L, Gardulf A, Strender LE (2003) Effects of ‘pain-advisers’: district nurses’ opinions regarding their own knowledge, management and documentation of patients in chronic pain. Scand J Caring Sci 17(4):332–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mac LK (2004) Postoperative pain: strategy for improving patient experiences. J Adv Nurs 46(2):179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ahles TA, Seville J, Wasson J, Johnson D, Callahan E, Stukel TA (2001) Panel-based pain management in primary care. a pilot study. J Pain Symptom Manage 22(1):584–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Borneman T, Koczywas M, Sun VC, Piper BF, Uman G, Ferrell B (2010) Reducing patient barriers to pain and fatigue management. J Pain Symptom Manage 39(3):486–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    de Wit R, van Dam F, Zandbelt L, van Buuren A, van der Heijden K, Leenhouts G, Loonstra S (1997) A pain education program for chronic cancer pain patients: follow-up results from a randomized controlled trial. Pain 73(1):55–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    LeFort SM, Gray-Donald K, Rowat KM, Jeans ME (1998) Randomized controlled trial of a community-based psychoeducation program for the self-management of chronic pain. Pain 74(2–3):297–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ward S, Donovan HS, Owen B, Grosen E, Serlin R (2000) An individualized intervention to overcome patient-related barriers to pain management in women with gynecologic cancers. Res Nurs Health 23(5):393–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wells-Federman C, Arnstein P, Caudill M (2002) Nurse-led pain management program: effect on self-efficacy, pain intensity, pain-related disability, and depressive symptoms in chronic pain patients. Pain Manag Nurs 3(4):131–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yates P, Edwards H, Nash R, Aranda S, Purdie D, Najman J, Skerman H, Walsh A (2004) A randomized controlled trial of a nurse-administered educational intervention for improving cancer pain management in ambulatory settings. Patient Educ Couns 53(2):227–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ferrell BR, Grant M, Ritchey KJ, Ropchan R, Rivera LM (1993) The pain resource nurse training program: a unique approach to pain management. J Pain Symptom Manage 8(8):549–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Knowles M (1980) The modern practice of adult education; From andragogy to pedagogy. Cambridge Adult Education, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Knowles M (1998) The adult learner: the definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Gulf Publishing, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pasero C, McCaffery M (2011) Pain assessment and pharmacologic management. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Brown CA, Richardson C (2006) Nurses’ in the multi-professional pain team: a study of attitudes, beliefs and treatment endorsements. Eur J Pain 10(1):13–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kohr R, Sawhney M (2005) Advanced practice nurses’ role in the treatment of pain. Can Nurse 101(3):30–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Musclow SL, Sawhney M, Watt-Watson J (2002) The emerging role of advanced nursing practice in acute pain management throughout Canada. Clin Nurse Spec 16(2):63–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pellino TA, Willens J, Polomano RC, Heye M (2002) The American Society of Pain Management Nurses practice analysis: role delineation study. Pain Manag Nurs 3(1):2–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McCleary L, Ellis JA, Rowley B (2004) Evaluation of the pain resource nurse role: a resource for improving pediatric pain management. Pain Manag Nurs 5(1):29–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Peretz S, DiJulio S, Ross H. (2009) 2009 eNonprofit benchmark study: an analysis of online messaging, fundraising, and advocay metrics for nonprofit organizations. M + R Strategic Services and Non-Profit Technology Network. www.e-benchmarkstudy.com. Accessed June 29, 2011

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcia Grant
    • 1
  • Betty Ferrell
    • 1
  • Jo Hanson
    • 1
  • Virginia Sun
    • 1
  • Gwen Uman
    • 2
  1. 1.Nursing Research & Education, Department of Population SciencesCity of HopeDuarteUSA
  2. 2.Vital ResearchLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations