Assessment of the Utility of the Oral Fluid and Plasma Proteomes for Hydrocodone Exposure
Non-medical use and abuse of prescription opioids is a growing problem in both the civilian and military communities, with minimal technologies for detecting hydrocodone use. This study explored the proteomic changes that occur in the oral fluid and blood plasma following controlled hydrocodone administration in 20 subjects.
The global proteomic profile was determined for samples taken at four time points per subject: pre-exposure and 4, 6, or 168 hours post-exposure. The oral fluid samples analyzed herein provided greater differentiation between baseline and response time points than was observed with blood plasma, at least partially due to significant person-to-person relative variability in the plasma proteome.
A total of 399 proteins were identified from oral fluid samples, and the abundance of 118 of those proteins was determined to be significantly different upon metabolism of hydrocodone (4 and 6 hour time points) as compared to baseline levels in the oral fluid (pre-dose and 168 hours).
We present an assessment of the oral fluid and plasma proteome following hydrocodone administration, which demonstrates the potential of oral fluid as a noninvasive sample that may reveal features of hydrocodone in opioid use, and with additional study, may be useful for other opioids and in settings of misuse.
KeywordsOral fluid Hydrocodone Proteomics Opioid Plasma
Work was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a US Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research national scientific user facility located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-76RLO 1830. Many thanks to Robert Mueck for sample processing and metabolic profiling analysis. The opinions represented in this manuscript do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of the US Government, Department of Defense, or US Air Force.
Funding was provided by the DoD (Department of Defense) CDMRP (Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program) W81WXH-11-2-0126.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The study was approved by the Wilford Hall Medical Center and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Review Boards.
Conflict of Interest
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