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Journal of Medical Toxicology

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 415–421 | Cite as

Presentations to the Emergency Department Following Cannabis use—a Multi-Centre Case Series from Ten European Countries

  • Alison M. Dines
  • David M. Wood
  • Miguel Galicia
  • Christopher M. Yates
  • Fridtjof Heyerdahl
  • Knut Erik Hovda
  • Isabelle Giraudon
  • Roumen Sedefov
  • Euro-DEN Research Group
  • Paul I. Dargan
Toxicology Investigation

Abstract

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in Europe, and is generally regarded as having low acute toxicity. We present the findings of the first 6 months of data collection from the Euro-DEN project on presentations related to cannabis use to further understand the acute toxicity related to the use of cannabis. Data was extracted on clinical features, treatment and outcome from the Euro-DEN minimum dataset for all cases of acute recreational drug toxicity reported 1st October 2013 to 31st March 2014 for all cannabis-related presentations. Of 2198 presentations reported by 14 of the 16 Euro-DEN centres, 356 (16.2 %) involved cannabis either alone or together with other drugs/alcohol. There were 36 that involved lone use of cannabis (1.6 % of all presentations). Of the 35 non-fatal lone cannabis presentations, the most commonly reported features were neuro-behavioural (agitation/aggression 8 (22.9 %), psychosis 7 (20.0 %), anxiety 7 (20.0 %)) and vomiting 6 (17.1 %). Most patients (25, 71.4 %) received no treatment and 30 (85.7 %) were discharged/self-discharged from the ED. There was one fatality amongst these lone-cannabis cases: an 18-year-old male collapsed with an asystolic cardiac arrest whilst smoking cannabis and suffered hypoxic brain injury related to prolonged cardiac arrest. THC was detected in a urine sample taken at ED arrival; no other drugs were detected. Lone acute cannabis toxicity was typically associated with neuro-behavioural symptoms and vomiting. Although uncommon, severe toxicity including cardiovascular toxicity and death may be under-recognised, and it is important that Emergency Physicians are aware of this.

Keywords

Cannabis Acute toxicity Emergency Department Euro-DEN 

Notes

Funding

With financial support from the DPIP/ISEC Programme of the European Union.

All the authors, have funding from the European Commission through the Euro-DEN project except ML and EL, whose costs were co-funded by the Swiss Centre of Applied Human Toxicology (SCAHT), and AR and KP.

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Copyright information

© American College of Medical Toxicology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alison M. Dines
    • 1
  • David M. Wood
    • 1
    • 2
  • Miguel Galicia
    • 3
  • Christopher M. Yates
    • 4
  • Fridtjof Heyerdahl
    • 5
  • Knut Erik Hovda
    • 5
  • Isabelle Giraudon
    • 6
  • Roumen Sedefov
    • 6
  • Euro-DEN Research Group
  • Paul I. Dargan
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Clinical ToxicologyGuy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and King’s Health PartnersLondonUK
  2. 2.King’s College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Emergency DepartmentHospital ClinicBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Emergency Department and Clinical Toxicology UnitHospital Universitari Son EspasesMallorcaSpain
  5. 5.The National CBRNe Centre, Department of Acute Medicine, Medical DivisionOslo University HospitalOsloNorway
  6. 6.European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)LisbonPortugal

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