Sexuality Research and Social Policy

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 371–389 | Cite as

The Problem with the Phrase “Intersecting Identities”: LGBT Affirmative Therapy, Intersectionality, and Neoliberalism



Since the declassification of homosexuality as a mental illness in 1973, psychology has transformed the way it approaches sexual orientation and gender identity issues in scientific research and clinical practice. The paradigmatic shift from psychopathology to identity has corresponded with the introduction of “LGBT affirmative therapy,” which suggests that therapists should affirm clients’ sexual orientations rather than reinforce sexual minorities’ experiences of stigma and marginalization. This qualitative study used a subset of psychotherapy training videos about LGBT issues to explore the form of content of LGBT affirmative therapy in the context of increased attention to identity and multiculturalism in applied psychology. The videos suggest that multiculturally competent therapists should understand sexuality and gender issues in terms of what psychologists call “multiple” or “intersecting” identities, namely race and ethnicity. While the multicultural turn in psychotherapy may signal a transformation in mental health service provision, our analysis questions whether these videos may unintentionally reflect a neoliberal logic of inclusion that obscures the structural dimensions of social inequality. We suggest that the uptake of intersectionality-like identitarian discourse in psychotherapy in particular offers opportunities for challenging and reinforcing neoliberalism.


Sexual orientation Gender identity Psychotherapy Intersectionality Neoliberalism 


  1. Adam, B. D. (2005). Constructing the neoliberal sexual actor. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 7, 333–346. doi:10.1080/13691050500100773.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed, S. (2004). The cultural politics of emotion. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed, S. (2006). The nonperformativity of antiracism. Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism, 7(1), 104–126. doi:10.2979/MER.2006.7.1.104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed, S. (2010). The promise of happiness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Ahmed, S. (2012). On being included: Racism and diversity in institutional life. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Counseling Association. (2015). Multicultural and social justice competencies. Retrieved from
  7. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. American Psychological Association. (2002). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from Psychological Association. (2002). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and
  9. Ansara, Y. G., & Hegarty, P. (2012). Cisgenderism in psychology: pathologizing and misgendering children from 1999 to 2008. Psychology & Sexuality, 3, 137–160. doi:10.1080/19419899.2011.576696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. APA Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation. (2009). Report of the Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  11. Arredondo, P., Toporek, M. S., Brown, S., Jones, J., Locke, D. C., Sanchez, J., & Stadler, H. (1996). Operationalization of the multicultural counseling competencies. Alexandria, VA: Association for Multicultural Counseling Development.Google Scholar
  12. Bawer, B. (1993). A place at the table: The gay individual in American society. New York, NY: Touchstone.Google Scholar
  13. Bay-Cheng, L. Y., Fitz, C. C., Alizaga, N. M., & Zucker, A. N. (2015). Tracking homo oeconomicus: development of the neoliberal beliefs inventory. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 3, 71–88. doi:10.5964/jspp.v3i1.366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bieschke, K. J., Perez, R. M., & DeBord, K. A. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of counseling and psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender clients (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  15. Bland, L., & Doan, L. (Eds.). (1998). Sexology uncensored: The documents of sexual science. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bowleg, L. (2008). When Black + woman + lesbian ≠ Black lesbian woman: The methodological challenges of qualitative and quantitative intersectionality research. Sex Roles, 59, 312–325. doi:10.1007/s11199-008-9400-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowleg, L. (2012). The problem with the phrase “women and minorities”: intersectionality—an important theoretical framework for public health. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 1267–1273. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300750.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, W. (2006). Regulating aversion: Tolerance in the age of identity and empire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Brown, W. (2015). Undoing the demos: Neoliberalism’s stealth revolution. Brooklyn, NY: Zone Books.Google Scholar
  20. Bryant, K. E. (2006). Making gender identity disorder in childhood: historical lessons from contemporary debates. Sexuality Research & Social Policy: Journal of NSRC, 3(3), 23–39. doi:10.1525/srsp.2006.3.3.23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bullough, V. L., & Bullough, B. (1997). The history of the science of sexual orientation 1880–1980: an overview. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 9, 1–16. doi:10.1300/j056v09n02_01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burnes, T. R., Singh, A. A., Harper, A. J., Harper, B., Maxon-Kann, W., Pickering, D. L., & Hosea, J. (2010). American Counseling Association: Competencies for counseling with transgender clients. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 4, 135–159. doi:10.1080/15538605.2010.524839.
  23. Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of “sex.”. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Byne, W., et al. (2012). Report of the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on Treatment of Gender Identity Disorder. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 759–796. doi:10.1007/s10508-012-9975-x.
  26. Carbado, D. W. (2013). Colorblind intersectionality. Signs: The Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 38, 811–845. doi:10.1086/669666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cho, S., Crenshaw, K. W., & McCall, L. (2013). Toward a field of intersectionality studies: Theory, applications, and praxis. Signs, 38, 785–810. doi:10.1086/669608.
  28. Clarke, A. E., Mamo, L., Fishman, J. R., Shim, J. K., & Fosket, J. R. (2003). Biomedicalization: technoscientific transformations of health, illness and U.S. biomedicine. American Sociological Review, 68, 161–194. doi:10.2307/1519765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cochran, S. D., Sullivan, J. G., & Mays, V. M. (2003). Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental health services use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 53–61. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.71.1.53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Cole, E. R. (2008). Coalitions as a model for intersectionality: From practice to theory. Sex Roles, 59, 443–453. doi:10.1007/s11199-008-9419-1.
  31. Collins, P. H. (2014, April). Toward social justice: Sharpening intersectionality’s critical edge. Keynote address given at the Intersectionality Research, Policy & Practice: Influences, Interrogations and Innovations international conference at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada.Google Scholar
  32. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  33. Crenshaw, K. W. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: a Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 140, 139–167.Google Scholar
  34. Davies, W. (2015). The happiness industry: How the government and big business sold us wellbeing. London, UK: Verso Books.Google Scholar
  35. Davis, K. (2008). Intersectionality as buzzword: a sociology of science perspective on what makes a feminist theory successful. Feminist Theory, 9, 67–85. doi:10.1177/1464700108086364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dhamoon, R. K. (2011). Considerations on mainstreaming intersectionality. Political Research Quarterly, 64, 230–243. doi:10.1177/1065912910379227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dill, B. T., & Kohlman, M. H. (2011). Intersectionality: A transformative paradigm in feminist theory and social justice. In S. N. Hesse-Biber (Ed.), The handbook of feminist research: Theory and praxis (2nd ed., pp. 154–174). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  38. Duggan, L. (2002). The new homonormativity: The sexual politics of neoliberalism. In R. Castronovo & D. D. Nelson (Eds.), Materialising democracy: Towards a revitalized cultural politics (pp. 175–194). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Duggan, L. (2003). The twilight of equality?: Neoliberalism, cultural politics, and the attack on democracy. Boston, MA: Beacon.Google Scholar
  40. Eagly, A. H., & Riger, S. (2014). Feminism and psychology: Critiques of methods and epistemology. American Psychologist, 69, 685–702. doi:10.1037/a0037372.
  41. Elliott, S. (2014). “Who’s to blame?”: constructing the responsible sexual agent in neoliberal sex education. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 11, 211–224. doi:10.1007/s13178-014-0158-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Epstein, S. (2007). Inclusion: The politics of difference in medical research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fassinger, R. E. (2005). Paradigms, praxis, problems, and promise: grounded theory in counseling psychology research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 156–166. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.52.2.156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fassinger, R. E., & Arseneau, J. R. (2007). “I’d rather get wet than be under that umbrella:” Differentiating among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. In K. J. Bieschke, R. M. Perez, & K. A. DeBord (Eds.), Handbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Clients (2nd ed., pp. 19–49). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000). Sexing the body: Gender politics and the construction of sexuality. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  46. Ferguson, R. A. (2012). The reorder of things: The university and its pedagogies of difference. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Foucault, M. (1970/1994). The order of things: An archaeology of the human sciences. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  48. Foucault, M. (1972). The discourse on language. In A. M. S. Smith (Ed.), The archaeology of knowledge and the discourse on language (pp. 215–237). New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  49. Foucault, M. (1978). The history of sexuality: An introduction, vol. I. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  50. Goff, P. A., & Kahn, K. B. (2013). How psychological science impedes intersectional thinking. Du Bois Review, 10, 365–384. doi:10.1017/s1742058x13000313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Goldfried, M. R. (2001). Integrating gay, lesbian, bisexual issues into mainstream psychology. American Psychologist, 56, 977–988. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.56.11.977.
  52. Gray, H. (2013). Subject(ed) to recognition. American Quarterly, 65, 771–798. doi:10.1353/aq.2013.0058.
  53. Grzanka, P. R. (Ed.). (2014). Intersectionality: A foundations and frontiers reader. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  54. Grzanka, P. R. (2016). Undoing the psychology of gender: Intersectional feminism and social science pedagogy. In K. A. Case (Ed.), Intersectional pedagogy: A model for complicating identity and social justice (pp. 61–79). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Grzanka, P. R., & Maher, J. (2012). Different, like everyone else: “Stuff White People Like” and the marketplace of diversity. Symbolic Interaction, 35, 368–393. doi:10.1002/SYMB.24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Grzanka, P. R., & Mann, E. S. (2014). Queer youth suicide and the psychopolitics of “It Gets Better.”. Sexualities, 17, 363–393. doi:10.1177/1363460713516785.
  57. Grzanka, P. R., & Miles, J. R. (2012, November). The gay sessions: Psychotherapy and the production of "sexual orientation." Paper presented at the National Women's Studies Association Annual Conference, Oakland, CA.Google Scholar
  58. Grzanka, P. R., & Miles, J. R. (2013, August). Gay affirmative? LGBT therapy and the production of mental health. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, New York City, NY.Google Scholar
  59. Grzanka, P. R., Bhatia, R., Lewis, M. M., Parks, S. L., Woodfork, J., Casiano, M. (2016). Intersectionality, Inc.: A dialogue on intersectionality’s travels and tribulations. Atlantis: Critical Studies in Gender, Culture, & Social Justice, (in press).Google Scholar
  60. Hacking, I. (1986). Making up people. In T. C. Heller, M. Sosna, & D. E. Wellbery (Eds.), Reconstructing individualism: autonomy, individuality, and the self in Western thought (pp. 222–236). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Hacking, I. (2002). How “natural” are “kinds” of sexual orientation? Law & Philosophy, 21, 335–347. doi:10.2307/3505123.Google Scholar
  62. Hammack, P. L., Mayers, L., & Windell, E. P. (2013). Narrative, psychology, and the politics of sexual identity in the United States: From ‘sickness’ to ‘species’ to ‘subject.’. Psychology & Sexuality, 4, 219–243. doi:10.1080/19419899.2011.621131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Haraway, D. (1997). Modest_Witness@Second_Millenium.FemaleMan_Meets_ OncoMouse. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  64. Harrison, N. (2000). Gay affirmative therapy: A critical analysis of the literature. Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 28, 37–53. doi:10.1080/030698800109600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hendricks, M. (2014). Owning our place at the table: The Next chapter for LGBT psychology. APA Division 44: Society for the Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Issues. Retrieved from
  66. Hesse-Biber, S., Kinder, S., & Dupuis, P. (2013). HyperRESEARCH (Version 3.5.2) [Software]. Available from
  67. Hill, C. E. (2012). Introduction to consensual qualitative research. In C. Hill (Ed.), Consensual qualitative research: A practical resource for investigating social science phenomena (pp. 3–20). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  68. Irvine, J. M. (2005). Disorders of desire: Sexuality and gender in modern American sexology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Johnson, S. D. (2012). Gay affirmative psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: Implications for contemporary psychotherapy research. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82, 516–522. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.2012.01180.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Karkazis, K. (2008). Fixing sex: Intersex, medical authority, and lives experience. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Koch, J. M., & Juntunen, C. L. (Eds.) (2014). Special issue: Non-traditional teaching methods for social justice, part 1. The Counseling Psychologist, 42(7), 894–1052.Google Scholar
  72. Luft, R. E., & Ward, J. (2009). Toward an intersectionality just out of reach: Confronting challenges to intersectional practice. Advances in Gender Research, 13, 9–37. doi:10.1108/s1529-2126(2009)0000013005.Google Scholar
  73. MacKinnon, C. A. (2013). Intersectionality as method: A note. Signs: The Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 38, 1019–1030. doi:10.1086/669570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mallinckrodt, B. (2009). Advances in research with sexual minority people: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56, 1–4. doi:10.1037/a0014652.
  75. Mann, E. S. (2013). Regulating Latina youth sexualities through community health centers: Discourses and practices of sexual citizenship. Gender & Society, 27, 681–703. doi:10.1177/0891243213493961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. May, V. M. (2015). Pursuing intersectionality, unsettling dominant imaginaries. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  77. McCall, L. (2005). The complexity of intersectionality. Signs: The Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 30, 1711–1800. doi:10.1086/426800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Melamed, J. (2006). The spirit of neoliberalism: From racial liberalism to neoliberal multiculturalism. Social Text, 89, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Melamed, J. (2011). Represent and destroy: Rationalizing violence in the new racial capitalism. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Minton, H. L. (1997). Queer theory: Historical roots and implications for psychology. Theory & Psychology, 7, 337–353. doi:10.1177/0959354397073003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nadal, K. L., Davidoff, K. C., Davis, L. S., Wong, Y., Marshall, D., & McKenzie, V. (2015). A qualitative approach to intersectional microaggressions: Understanding influences of race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, and religion. Qualitative Psychology, 2, 147–163. doi:10.1037/qup0000026.
  82. Neville, H. A., & Carter, R. T. (2005). Race and racism in counseling psychology research, training, and practice: A critical review, current trends, and future directions. The Counseling Psychologist, 33, 413–418. doi:10.1177/0011000005276733.
  83. Owen, J. J., Tao, K., Leach, M. M., & Rodolfa, E. (2011). Clients’ perceptions of their therapists’ multicultural orientation. Psychotherapy, 48, 274–282. doi:10.1037/a0022065.
  84. Pachankis, J. E., & Goldfried, M. R. (2013). Clinical issues in working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1, 45–58. doi:10.1037/2329-0382.1.S.45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Parent, M., DeBlaere, C., & Moradi, B. (2013). Approaches to research on intersectionality: Perspectives on gender, LGBT, and racial-ethnic identities. Sex Roles, 68, 639–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Parlee, M. B. (1996). Situated knowledges of personal embodiment: Transgender activists’ and psychology theorists’ perspectives on ‘sex’ and ‘gender.’. Theory & Psychology, 6, 625–645. doi:10.1177/0959354396064005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pettit, M. (2011). The SPSSI Task Force on Sexual Orientation, the nature of sex, and the contours of activist science. Journal of Social Issues, 67, 92–105. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2010.01685.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pickersgill, M. (2012). What is psychiatry? Co-producing complexity in mental health. Society Theory & Health, 10, 328–347. doi:10.1057/sth.2012.9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ponterotto, J. G., Casas, J. M., Suzuki, L. A., & Alexander, C. M. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of multicultural counseling (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
  90. Reddy, C. (2005). Asian diasporas, neoliberalism, and family: Reviewing the case for homosexual asylum in the context of family rights. Social Text, 23, 101–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Reddy, C. (2011). Freedom with violence: Race, sexuality, and the U.S. state. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Seidman, S. (1997). Difference troubles: Queering social theory and sexual politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shelton, K., & Delgado-Romero, E. (2013). Sexual orientation microaggressions: The experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer clients in psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 210–221. doi:10.1037/a0022251.
  94. Shim, J. K. (2005). Constructing 'race' across the science-lay divide: Racial formation in the epidemiology and experience of cardiovascular disease. Social Studies of Science, 35, 405–436. doi:10.1177/0306312705052105.
  95. Somerville, S. (1994). Scientific racism and the emergence of the homosexual body. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 5, 243–266. doi:10.1215/9780822378761-002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Spade, D. (2015). Normal life: Administrative violence, critical trans politics, and the limits of the law (2nd ed.). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Speight, S. L., & Vera, E. M. (2008). Social justice and counseling psychology: A challenge to the profession. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (4th ed., pp. 54–67). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  98. Stein, E. (1999). The mismeasure of desire: The science, theory, and ethics of sexual orientation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Sue, D. W. (2010). Microaggressions in everyday life: Race, gender, and sexual orientation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  100. Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2012). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  101. Sue, D. W., Bernier, J. E., Durran, A., Feinberg, L., Pedersen, P., Smith, E. J., & Vasquez-Nuttall, E. (1982). Position paper: Cross-cultural counseling competencies. The Counseling Psychologist, 10, 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sue, D. W., Arredondo, P., & McDavis, R. J. (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 20, 64–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Syed, M. (2010). Disciplinarity and methodology in intersectionality theory and research. American Psychologist, 65, 61–62. doi:10.1037/a0017495.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Terry, J. (1999). An American obsession: science, medicine, and homosexuality in modern society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Toporek, R. L., Gerstein, L. H., Fouad, N. A., Roysircar, G., & Israel, T. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook for social justice in counseling psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  106. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (2006). The national survey on drug use and health report. Retrieved from:\
  107. Valentine, D. (2007). Imaging transgender: An ethnography of a category. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Van Den Bergh, N., & Crisp, C. (2004). Defining culturally competent practice with sexual minorities: Implications for social work education and practice. Journal of Social Work Education, 40, 221–238.Google Scholar
  109. Vera, E., & Speight, S. L. (2003). Multicultural competence, social justice, and counseling psychology: Expanding our roles. The Counseling Psychologist, 31, 253–272. doi:10.1177/0011000002250634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Waidzunas, T. (2015). The straight line: How the fringe science of ex-gay therapy reoriented sexuality. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Walters, S. D. (2014). The tolerance trap: How god, genes, and good intentions are sabotaging gay equality. New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Wiegman, R. (2012). Object lessons. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wilton, L., Casa, J. M., & Suzuki, L. A. (2009). Where do we go from here? Raising the bar of what counts of multicultural competence in working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities. In J. G. Ponterotto & C. M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (3rd ed., pp. 313–325). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations