Advertisement

Sexuality Research and Social Policy

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 1–10 | Cite as

Sexuality-Related Work Discrimination and Its Association with the Health of Sexual Minority Emerging and Young Adult Men in the Detroit Metro Area

  • José A. BauermeisterEmail author
  • Steven Meanley
  • Andrew Hickok
  • Emily Pingel
  • William VanHemert
  • Jimena Loveluck
Article

Abstract

Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18–29; N = 397; 83 % gay; 49 % black, 27 % white, 15 % Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (Michigan, USA). Using multivariate regression models, we examined the association between overall health (self-rated health, days in prior month when their physical or mental health was not good, and limited functionality) and experiences of sexuality-based work discrimination. Fifteen percent reported at least one experience of sexuality-based work discrimination in the prior year. Recent workplace discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health, a greater number of days when health was not good, and more functional limitation. We discuss the importance of addressing sexuality-related discrimination as a public health problem and propose multilevel intervention strategies to address these discriminatory practices.

Keywords

Employment Job Homophobia LGBT 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by a grant by the Ford Foundation and the MAC AIDS Fund to the primary author. The primary author is also supported by a Career Development Award (K01-MH087242) from the National Institutes of Mental Health.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.

References

  1. Arnett, J. (2007). Emerging adulthood: What is it, and what is it good for? Child Development Perspectives, 1(2), 68–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Badgett, M. (1995). The wage effects of sexual orientation discrimination. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48(4), 726–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Badgett, M., Lau, H., Sears, B., & Ho, D. (2007). Bias in the workplace: Consistent evidence of sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination. Los Angeles: The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law.Google Scholar
  4. Badgett, M., Sears, B., Lau, H., & Ho, D. (2009). Bias in the workplace: Consistent evidence of sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination 1998–2008. Chicago: Kent Law Review.Google Scholar
  5. Balsam, K. F., Molina, Y., Beadnell, B., Simon, J., & Walters, K. (2011). Measuring multiple minority stress: The LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(2), 163–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauermeister, J. A., Pingel, E., Zimmerman, M., Couper, M., Carballo-Dieguez, A., & Strecher, V. J. (2012). Data quality in HIV/AIDS web-based surveys: Handling invalid and suspicious data. Field Methods, 24(3), 272–91.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bauermeister, J. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Barnett, T. E., & Caldwell, C. H. (2007). Working in high school and adaptation in the transition to young adulthood among African American youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(7), 877–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernstein, M., & Swartwout, P. (2012). Gay officers in their midst: Heterosexual police employees’ anticipation of the consequences for coworkers who come out. Journal of Homosexuality, 59(8), 1145–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bouzianis, B., Malcolm, J. P., & Hallab, L. (2008). Factors associated with sexual identity disclosure in the workplace by gay men and lesbians: A couples study. Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review, 4(3), 166–75.Google Scholar
  10. Bowleg, L. (2012). The problem with the phrase women and minorities: Intersectionality—An important theoretical framework for public health. American Journal of Public Health, 102(7), 1267–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowleg, L., Brooks, K., & Ritz, S. F. (2008). Bringing home more than a paycheck: An exploratory analysis of Black lesbians’ experiences of stress and coping in the workplace. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 12(1), 69–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bradford, J., Reisner, S.L., Honnold, J., Xavier, J. (2013). Experiences of transgender-related discrimination and implications for health: Results from the Virginia transgender health initiative study. American Journal of Public Health, 103, 1820–1829.Google Scholar
  13. Brenner, A. B., Zimmerman, M. A., Bauermeister, J. A., & Caldwell, C. H. (2012). The physiological expression of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods for youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(6), 792–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chae, D. H., Krieger, N., Bennett, G. G., Lindsey, J. C., Stoddard, A. M., & Barbeau, E. M. (2010). Implications of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race/ethnicity for psychological distress among working-class sexual minorities: The United for Health Study, 2003–2004. International Journal of Health Services, 40(4), 589–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Connell, C. (2012). Dangerous disclosures. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 9(2), 168–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Couper, M. P. (2008). Designing effective web surveys. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. D’Anna, L. H., Ponce, N. A., & Siegel, J. M. (2010). Racial and ethnic health disparities: Evidence of discrimination’s effects across the SEP spectrum. Ethnicity & Health, 15(2), 121–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Castro, A., Gee, G., & Takeuchi, D. (2008). Workplace discrimination and health among Filipinos in the United States. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(3), 520–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Din-Dzietham, R. R., Nembhard, W. N., Collins, R. R., & Davis, S. K. (2004). Perceived stress following race-based discrimination at work is associated with hypertension in African-Americans. The metro Atlanta heart disease study, 1999–2001. Social Science & Medicine, 58(3), 449–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Department of Civil Rights State of Michigan. (2013). Report on LGBT inclusion under Michigan Law with recommendations for action, 132. Lansing, Michigan. Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/mdcr/0,4613,7-138--293875--,00.html
  21. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2013). Local area unemployment statistics: Unemployment rates for the 50 largest cities. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/lau/lacilg10.htm.
  22. Dubé, E. M., & Savin-Williams, R. C. (1999). Sexual identity development among ethnic sexual-minority male youths. Developmental Psychology, 35(6), 1389–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Embrick, D. G., Walther, C. S., & Wickens, C. M. (2007). Working class masculinity: Keeping gay men and lesbians out of the workplace. Sex Roles, 56(11–12), 757–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Finch, M. D., Mortimer, J. T., & Ryu, S. (1997). Transition into part-time work: Health risks and opportunities. In J. Schulenberg, J. L. Maggs, & K. Hurrelmann (Eds.), Health risks and developmental transitions during adolescence (pp. 321–324). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Flick, U., & Rohnsch, G. (2007). Idealiziation and neglect: Health concepts of homeless adolescents. Journal of Health Psychology, 12(5), 737–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Frost, D. M., & Meyer, I. H. (2012). Measuring community connectedness among diverse sexual minority populations. Journal of Sex Research, 49(1), 36–49.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Geronimus, A. T. (2000). To mitigate, resist, or undo: Addressing structural influences on the health of urban populations. American Journal of Public Health, 90(6), 867–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Geronimus, A. T., Bound, J., Waidmann, T. A., Colen, C. G., & Steffick, D. (2001). Inequality in life expectancy, functional status, and active life expectancy across selected black and white populations in the United States. Demography, 38(2), 227–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hammond, W. P., Gillen, M., & Yen, I. H. (2010). Workplace discrimination and depressive symptoms: A study of multi-ethnic hospital employees. Race and Social Problems, 2(1), 19–30.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Keyes, K. M., & Hasin, D. S. (2009). State-level policies and psychiatric morbidity in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2275–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2010). The impact of institutional discrimination on psychiatric disorders in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: A prospective study. American Journal of Public Health, 100(3), 452–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Herek, G. M., & Berril, K. T. (Eds.). (1992). Hate crimes: Confronting violence against lesbians and gay men. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  33. James, S. A. (1993). Racial and ethnic differences in infant mortality and low birth weight: A psychosocial critique. Annals of Epidemiology, 3(2), 130–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. James, S. A. (1994). John Henryism and the health of African-Americans. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 18(2), 163–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johns, M. M., Zimmerman, M., & Bauermeister, J. A. (2012). Sexual attraction, sexual identity, and psychosocial wellbeing in a national sample of young women during emerging adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(1), 82–95.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jylhä, M. (1982). What is self-rated health and why does it predict mortality? Towards a unified conceptual model. Social Science & Medicine, 69(3), 307–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Krieger, N., & Sidney, S. (1996). Racial discrimination and blood pressure: The CARDIA study of young black and white adults. American Journal Of Public Health, 86(10), 1370–1378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Laurent, T., & Mihoubi, F. (2012). Sexual orientation and wage discrimination in France: The hidden side of the rainbow. Journal of Labor Research, 33(4), 487–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McCabe, S. E., Bostwick, W. B., Hughes, T. L., West, B. T., & Boyd, C. J. (2010). The relationship between discrimination and substance use disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 100(10), 1946–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Meyer, I. (1995). Minority stress and mental health in gay men. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36, 38–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moriarty, D. G., Zack, M. M., & Kobau, R. (2003). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Healthy Days Measures—Population tracking of perceived physical and mental health over time. Health & Quality Of Life Outcomes, 1, 37–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Foundation (2012). State nondiscrimination laws in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.thetaskforce.org/downloads/reports/issue_maps/non_discrimination_1_12_color.pdf
  43. Okechukwu, C.A., Souza, K., Davis, K.D, & de Castro, A.B.. (2013). Discrimination, harassment, abuse, and bullying in the workplace: Contribution of workplace injustice to occupational health disparities. American Journal Industrial Medicine. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22221
  44. Ozturk, M. (2011). Sexual orientation discrimination: Exploring the experiences of lesbian, gay and bisexual employees in Turkey. Human Relations, 64(8), 1099–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pascoe, E. A., & Smart, R. L. (2009). Perceived discrimination and health: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 135(4), 531–54.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pavalko, E. K., Mossakowski, K. N., & Hamilton, V. J. (2003). Does perceived discrimination affect health? Longitudinal relationships between work discrimination and women’s physical and emotional health. Journal Of Health & Social Behavior, 44(1), 18–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Riggle, E. D. B., Rostosky, S. S., Prather, R. A., & Hamrin, R. (2005). The execution of legal documents by sexual minority individuals. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11(1), 138–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Russell, G. M., & Richards, J. (2003). Stressor and resilience factors for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals confronting antigay politics. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31(3–4), 313–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A. M. B., Nadal, K. L., et al. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. The American Psychologist, 62(4), 271–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. US Census Bureau (2013). State and county quick facts: Detroit, Michigan. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/26/2622000.html
  51. Vingilis, E., Wade, T., & Adlaf, E. (1998). What factors predict student self-rated physical health? Journal of Adolescence, 21(1), 83–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wolff, L. S., Subramanian, S. V., Acevedo-Garcia, D., Weber, D., & Kawachi, I. (2010). Compared to whom? Subjective social status, self-rated health, and referent group sensitivity in a diverse US sample. Social Science & Medicine, 70(12), 2019–2028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • José A. Bauermeister
    • 1
    Email author
  • Steven Meanley
    • 1
  • Andrew Hickok
    • 1
  • Emily Pingel
    • 1
  • William VanHemert
    • 2
  • Jimena Loveluck
    • 3
  1. 1.The Center for Sexuality & Health DisparitiesUniversity of Michigan School of Public HealthAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.AIDS Partnership MichiganDetroitUSA
  3. 3.HIV/AIDS Resource CenterYpsilantiUSA

Personalised recommendations