Sexuality Research and Social Policy

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 41–56 | Cite as

Does Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) Affect Women’s Sexual Functioning? A Systematic Review of the Sexual Consequences of FGM/C

  • Rigmor C. BergEmail author
  • Eva Denison


Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) refers to a cultural practice which involves partial removal of or injury to the female external genitalia for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons. Estimates suggest that there are 100–130 million girls and women currently living with various health consequences from FGM/C. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the sexual consequences of FGM/C. A total of 15 studies, of variable methodological quality, with 12,671 participants from seven different countries were included. The majority of the 65 outcomes were statistically associated with FGM/C status at study level. Meta-analysis results showed that compared to women without FGM/C, women who had been subjected to FGM/C were more likely to report dyspareunia (relative risk (RR) = 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15, 2.0), no sexual desire (RR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.37, 3.36) and less sexual satisfaction (standardized mean difference = −0.34, 95% CI = −0.56, −0.13). Heterogeneity precluded additional consideration of other outcomes. The systematic review substantiates the proposition that a woman whose genital tissues have been partly removed is more likely to experience increased pain and reduction in sexual satisfaction and desire. Increased research efforts to investigate the sexual harms from FGM/C are indicated. Sexual education and therapy could be offered to women with FGM/C who want that.


Female genital mutilation/cutting Consequences Sexual functioning Systematic review 



We are grateful to the Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies for providing financial support for the systematic review. Thank you to R. Elise Johansen, Susan Munabi-Babigumira and Tove Ringerike for valuable comments to earlier drafts of the systematic review.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Evidence-Based Health ServicesNorwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health ServicesOsloNorway

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