Advertisement

Misconceptions About Colour Categories

  • Christoph Witzel
Article

Abstract

The origin of colour categories and their relationship to colour perception have been the prime example for testing the influence of language on perception and thought (Sapir-Whorf hypothesis) and more generally for investigating the biological, ecological and cultural determination of human cognition (nature-nurture debate). These themes are central to a broad range of disciplines, including vision research, neuroscience, cognitive psychology, developmental science, cultural anthropology, linguistics, computer science, and philosophy. Unfortunately, though, it has been tacitly taken for granted that the conceptual assumptions and methodological practices from the dawn of empirical research on colour categorisation are the gold standard for current colour category research. Here, we show that these assumptions and practices are obsolete and flawed and have led to four fundamental and widespread misconceptions about colour categorisation: 1.) that colour perception is inherently categorical; 2.) that English Basic Colour Terms correspond to universal categories that are the end point of a fixed evolutionary sequence; 3.) that the prototypes of English basic colour terms are perceptually salient and qualify as focal colours; and 4.) that colour category research essentially revolves around the universalism-realism debate. State-of-the-art research on colour categorisation provides new, more sophisticated approaches and allows for rectifying those four statements. At the same time, some of the questions underlying those statements are not convincingly answered yet and constitute major challenges to future research. The critical considerations on colour categorisation may be transferred to research on other kinds of perceptual categorisation to inspire new, more general research questions.

Notes

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to Paul Kay, Delwin Lindsey, Simon Cropper, and Kasia Siuda-Krzywicka for helpful comments on the manuscript, and to J. Kevin O’Regan for suggesting the title of this article. This work was supported by DFG Sonderforschungsbereich SFB TRR 135.

References

  1. Abbott, J.T., T.L. Griffiths, and T. Regier. 2016. Focal colors across languages are representative members of color categories. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (40): 11178–11183.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1513298113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, M., and C. Kay. 2014. The spread of red in the historical thesaurus of english. In Colour studies: A broad spectrum, ed. W. Anderson, C.P. Biggam, C. Hough, and C. Kay, 126–139. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez, J., Clifford, A., Holmes, A., & Franklin, A. 2012. Attention modulates hemispheric lateralisation of categorical colour search: An alternative account for ‘Lateralised Whorf’. Paper presented at the Progress in Colour Studies 2012 (PICS12), Glasgow.Google Scholar
  4. Androulaki, A., N. Gômez-Pestaña, C. Mitsakis, J.L. Jover, K. Coventry, and I.R.L. Davies. 2006. Basic colour terms in Modern Greek - Twelve terms including two blues. Journal of Greek Linguistics 7: 3–47.Google Scholar
  5. Athanasopoulos, P. 2009. Cognitive representation of colour in bilinguals: The case of Greek blues. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 12: 83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Auvray, M., S. Hanneton, C. Lenay, and J.K. O'Regan. 2005. There is something out there: distal attribution in sensory substitution, twenty years later. J Integr Neurosci 4 (4): 505–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bachy, R., J. Dias, D. Alleysson, and V. Bonnardel. 2012. Hue discrimination, unique hues and naming. Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision 29 (2): A60–A68.  https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.29.000A60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baddeley, R., and D. Attewell. 2009. The relationship between language and the environment: information theory shows why we have only three lightness terms. Psychological Science 20 (9): 1100–1107.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02412.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bae, G.Y., M. Olkkonen, S.R. Allred, and J.I. Flombaum. 2015. Why some colors appear more memorable than others: A model combining categories and particulars in color working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (4): 744–763.  https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baronchelli, A., T. Gong, A. Puglisi, and V. Loreto. 2010. Modeling the emergence of universality in color naming patterns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107 (6): 2403–2407.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0908533107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beare, A.C. 1963. Color-Name as a Function of Wave-Length. The American Journal of Psychology 76 (2): 248–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berlin, B., and E.A. Berlin. 1975. Aguaruna Color Categories. American Ethnologist 2: 61–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berlin, B., and P. Kay. 1991[1969]. Basic color terms: their universality and evolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Biggam, C.P. 2012. The Semantics of Colour: A Historical Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bimler, D. 2009. Linguistic and Perceptual Categories in Colour Vision: A Critical Review. Journal of Cognitive Science, 10(Special Issue: Color in Thought and Language).Google Scholar
  16. Bimler, D., & Uusküla, M. 2016. A similarity-based cross-language comparison of basicness and demarcation of “blue” terms. Color Research & Application, n/a-n/a.  https://doi.org/10.1002/col.22076
  17. Bornstein, M.H. 1973. Color vision and color naming: a psychophysiological hypothesis of cultural difference. Psychological Bulletin 80 (4): 257–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bornstein, M. H. 1987. Perceptual categories in vision and audition Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition (pp. 287–300). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Bornstein, M.H. 2007. Hue categorization and color naming: cognition to language to culture. In Anthropology of Color, ed. R.E. MacLaury, G.V. Paramei, and D. Dedrick, 3–27. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bornstein, M.H., and N.O. Korda. 1984. Discrimination and matching within and between hues measured by reaction times: some implications for categorical perception and levels of information processing. Psychological Research 46 (3): 207–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bornstein, M.H., W. Kessen, and S. Weiskopf. 1976. The categories of hue in infancy. Science 191 (4223): 201–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bosten, J.M., and A.J. Lawrance-Owen. 2014. No difference in variability of unique hue selections and binary hue selections. Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision 31 (4): A357–A364.  https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.31.00A357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Boster, J. 1986. Can Individuals Recapitulate the Evolutionary Development of Color Lexicons? Ethnology 25 (1): 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Boynton, R.M., and N. Kambe. 1980. Chromatic Difference Steps of Moderate Size Measured along Theoretically Critical Axes. Color Research & Application 5 (1): 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Boynton, R.M., and C.X. Olson. 1990. Salience of chromatic basic color terms confirmed by three measures. Vision Research 30 (9): 1311–1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brainard, D.H. 2015. Color and the Cone Mosaic. Annual Review of Vision Science 1 (1): 519–546.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-082114-035341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bremner, A. J., Caparos, S., Davidoff, J., de Fockert, J., Linnell, K. J., & Spence, C. (2013). “Bouba” and “Kiki” in Namibia? A remote culture make similar shape–sound matches, but different shape–taste matches to Westerners. Cognition, 126(2), 165-172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2012.09.007
  28. Brouwer, G.J., and D.J. Heeger. 2013. Categorical clustering of the neural representation of color. Journal of Neuroscience 33 (39): 15454–15465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brown, R.W., and E.H. Lenneberg. 1954. A study in language and cognition. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 49 (3): 454–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brown, A.M., and D.T. Lindsey. 2013. Infant color vision and color preferences: a tribute to Davida Teller. Visual Neuroscience 30 (5-6): 243–250.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952523813000114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brown, A.M., D.T. Lindsey, and K.M. Guckes. 2011. Color names, color categories, and color-cued visual search: Sometimes, color perception is not categorical. Journal of Vision 11 (12).Google Scholar
  32. Brown, A.M., A. Isse, and D.T. Lindsey. 2016. The color lexicon of the Somali language. Journal of Vision 16 (5): 14–14.  https://doi.org/10.1167/16.5.14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Casson, R.W. 1997. Color shift: evolution of English color terms from brightness to hue. In Color Categories in Thought and Language, ed. C.L. Hardin and L. Maffi, 224–239. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cibelli, E., Y. Xu, J.L. Austerweil, T.L. Griffiths, and T. Regier. 2016. The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis and Probabilistic Inference: Evidence from the Domain of Color. PLoS One 11 (7): e0158725.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Claidière, N., Y. Jraissati, and C. Chevallier. 2008. A Colour Sorting Task Reveals the Limits of the Universalist/Relativist Dichotomy: Colour Categories Can Be Both Language Specific and Perceptual. Journal of Cognition and Culture 8 (3): 211–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Collier, G.A. 1973. Review of "Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution". Language 49 (1): 245–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Collier, G. A., Dorflinger, G. K., Gulick, T. A., Johnson, D. L., McCorkle, C., Meyer, M. A., . . . Yip, L. (1976). Further Evidence for Universal Color Categories. Language, 52(4), 884-890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Collins, J.A., and I.R. Olson. 2014. Knowledge is power: how conceptual knowledge transforms visual cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 21 (4): 843–860.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-013-0564-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Conklin, H.C. 1973. Color Categorization. American Anthropologist 75 (4): 931–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Constable, M.D., and S.I. Becker. 2017. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review: 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1246-3.
  41. Corbett, G.G., and G. Morgan. 1988. Colour terms in Russian: Reflections of typological constraints on a single language. Journal of Linguistics 24: 31–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Crawford, T.D. 1982. Defining "basic color term". Anthropological Linguistics 24: 338–343.Google Scholar
  43. Cropper, S.J., and S.M. Wuerger. 2005. The Perception of Motion in Chromatic Stimuli. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews 4 (3): 192–217.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1534582305285120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cropper, S.J., J.G. Kvansakul, and D.R. Little. 2013. The categorisation of non-categorical colours: a novel paradigm in colour perception. PLoS One 8 (3): e59945.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Davidoff, J. 2015. Color categorization across cultures. In Handbook of Color Psychology, ed. A.J. Elliot, A. Franklin, and M.D. Fairchild, 259–278. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Davidoff, J., I.R.L. Davies, and D. Roberson. 1999. Colour categories in a stone-age tribe. Nature 398 (6724): 203–204.  https://doi.org/10.1038/18335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Davidoff, J., J. Goldstein, I. Tharp, E. Wakui, and J. Fagot. 2012. Perceptual and categorical judgements of colour similarity. Journal of Cognitive Psychology 24 (7): 871–892.  https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2012.706603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. de Saussure, F. 1972. Cours de linguistique générale. Paris: Payot.Google Scholar
  49. Dedrick, D. 1998. The Foundations of the Universalist Tradition in Color-Naming Research (and Their Supposed Refutation). Philosophy of the Social Sciences 28 (2): 179–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Deroy, O., and C. Spence. 2016. Crossmodal Correspondences: Four Challenges. Multisens Res 29 (1-3): 29–48.  https://doi.org/10.1163/22134808-00002488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Derrington, A.M., J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie. 1984. Chromatic mechanisms in the lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque. Journal of Physiology 357: 241–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Deutscher, G. 2011. Through the language glass: why the world looks different in other languages. London: Random House UK.Google Scholar
  53. De Valois, R.L., and K.K. De Valois 1993. A multi-stage color model. Vision Research 33 (8): 1053–1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Douven, I. 2017. Clustering colors. Cognitive Systems Research 45 (Supplement C): 70–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogsys.2017.05.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Drivonikou, G.V., P. Kay, T. Regier, R.B. Ivry, A.L. Gilbert, A. Franklin, and I.R.L. Davies. 2007. Further evidence that Whorfian effects are stronger in the right visual field than the left. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104 (3): 1097–1102.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0610132104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Durbin, M. 1972. Review of Basic Color Terms. Semiotica 6: 257–278.Google Scholar
  57. Eco, U. 1988. Le Signe: Histoire et Analyse d'un concept. Bruxelles: Labor.Google Scholar
  58. Emery, K. J., Volbrecht, V. J., Peterzell, D. H., & Webster, M. A. 2017. Variations in normal color vision. VII. Relationships between color naming and hue scaling. Vision Research.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2016.12.007
  59. Erickson, R.P. 2008. A study of the science of taste: On the origins and influence of the core ideas. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (1): 59–75.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X08003348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Eskew, R.T., Jr. 2009. Higher order color mechanisms: a critical review. Vision Research 49 (22): 2686–2704.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2009.07.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Everett, D.L. 2005. Cultural Constraints on Grammar and Cognition in Piraha. Current Anthropology 46 (4): 621–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Fagot, J., J. Goldstein, J. Davidoff, and A. Pickering 2006. Cross-species differences in color categorization. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 13 (2): 275–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fairchild, M.D. 2013. Colour appearance models. Hoboken, Nj. Wiley.Google Scholar
  64. Fider, N., L. Narens, K.A. Jameson, and N.L. Komarova. 2017. Quantitative approach for defining basic color terms and color category best exemplars. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 34 (8): 1285–1300.  https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.34.001285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Firestone, C., and B.J. Scholl. 2016. Cognition does not affect perception: Evaluating the evidence for “top-down” effects. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39: 1–77.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X15000965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Forbes, I. 1979. The Terms "Brun" and "Marron" in Modern Standard French. Journal of Linguistics 15 (2): 295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Foster, D.H. 2011. Color constancy. Vision Research.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2010.09.006.
  68. Franklin, A. 2009. Pre-linguistic categorical perception of colour cannot be explained by colour preference: Response to Roberson and Hanley. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (12): 501–502.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2009.10.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Franklin, A., and I.R.L. Davies. 2004. New evidence for infant colour categories. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 22: 349–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Franklin, A., A. Clifford, E. Williamson, and I.R.L. Davies. 2005a. Color term knowledge does not affect categorical perception of color in toddlers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 90 (2): 114–141.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2004.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Franklin, A., M. Pilling, and I.R.L. Davies. 2005b. The nature of infant color categorization: evidence from eye movements on a target detection task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 91 (3): 227–248.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2005.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Franklin, A., G.V. Drivonikou, L. Bevis, I.R.L. Davies, P. Kay, and T. Regier. 2008a. Categorical perception of color is lateralized to the right hemisphere in infants, but to the left hemisphere in adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105 (9): 3221–3225.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0712286105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Franklin, A., G.V. Drivonikou, A. Clifford, P. Kay, T. Regier, and I.R.L. Davies. 2008b. Lateralization of categorical perception of color changes with color term acquisition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105 (47): 18221–18225.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0809952105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Franklin, A., O. Wright, and I.R.L. Davies. 2009. What can we learn from toddlers about categorical perception of color? Comments on Goldstein, Davidoff, and Roberson. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 102 (2): 239–245.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2008.08.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Franklin, A., D. Catherwood, J. Alvarez, and E. Axelsson. 2010. Hemispheric asymmetries in categorical perception of orientation in infants and adults. Neuropsychologia 48 (9): 2648–2657.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.05.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gage, J. 1999. Color and Culture - Practice and Meaning from Antiquity to Abstraction. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  77. Gaissert, N., S. Waterkamp, R.W. Fleming, and I. Bulthoff. 2012. Haptic categorical perception of shape. PLoS One 7 (8): e43062.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gao, J., and U. Sutrop. 2014. The basic color terms of Mandarin Chinese: A theory-driven experimental study. Studies in Language 38 (2): 335–359.  https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.38.2.03gao.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gegenfurtner, K.R., and D.C. Kiper. 2003. Color Vision. Annual Review of Neuroscience 26 (1): 181–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gentner, D., and S. Goldin-Meadow. 2003. Whiter Whorf. In Language in Mind: Advances in the study of language and thought, ed. D. Gentner and S. Goldin-Meadow, 3–14. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  81. Gerhardstein, P., P. Renner, and C. Rovee-Collier. 1999. The roles of perceptual and categorical similarity in colour pop-out in infants. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 17 (3): 403–420.  https://doi.org/10.1348/026151099165366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gerrits, E., and M.E. Schouten. 2004. Categorical perception depends on the discrimination task. Perception and Psychophysics 66 (3): 363–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gibson, E., Futrell, R., Jara-Ettinger, J., Mahowald, K., Bergen, L., Ratnasingam, S., . . . Conway, B. R. (2017). Color naming across languages reflects color use. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1619666114
  84. Giesel, M., Hansen, T., & Gegenfurtner, K. R. (2009). The discrimination of chromatic textures. Journal of Vision, 9(9), 11 11-28.Google Scholar
  85. Gilbert, A.L., T. Regier, P. Kay, and R.B. Ivry. 2006. Whorf hypothesis is supported in the right visual field but not in the left. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103 (2): 489–494.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0509868103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gilbert, A.L., T. Regier, P. Kay, and R.B. Ivry. 2008. Support for lateralization of the Whorf effect beyond the realm of color discrimination. Brain Language 105 (2): 91–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2007.06.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gilberthorpe, E. 2017. New Guinea’s indigenous tribes are alive and well (just don’t call them ‘ancient’). The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/new-guineas-indigenous-tribes-are-alive-and-well-just-dont-call-them-ancient-75888
  88. Glottopedia - Discovering Linguistics. (2013). Focal colors. Retrieved from http://www.glottopedia.org/index.php/Focal_Colors
  89. Goldstein, E.B. 2014. Sensation and perception (9 ed.). Belmore: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  90. Goldstein, J., and J. Davidoff. 2008. Categorical perception of animal patterns. British Journal of Psychology 99 (Pt 2): 229–243.  https://doi.org/10.1348/000712607X228555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Goldstone, R.L. 1994a. The role of similarity in categorization: providing a groundwork. Cognition 52 (2): 125–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(94)90065-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Goldstone, R.L. 1994b. Influences of categorization on perceptual discrimination. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 123 (2): 178–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Goldstone, R.L. 1995. Effects of Categorization on Color Perception. Psychological Science 6 (5): 298–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Goldstone, R.L., and A.T. Hendrickson. 2010. Categorical perception. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science 1 (1): 69–78.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Grandison, A., P.T. Sowden, V.G. Drivonikou, L.A. Notman, I. Alexander, and I.R. Davies. 2016. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input. Frontiers in Psychology 7: 731.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Groh, A. 2016. Culture, Language and Thought: Field Studies on Colour Concepts. Journal of Cognition and Culture 16 (1-2): 83–106.  https://doi.org/10.1163/15685373-12342169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Guest, S., and D. Van Laar. 2000. The structure of colour naming space. Vision Research 40 (7): 723–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Gumperz, J.J., and S.C. Levinson. 1991. Rethinking Linguistic Relativity. Current Anthropology 32 (5): 613–623.  https://doi.org/10.1086/204009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hansen, T. 2010. Color naming. In SAGE Encyclopedia of Perception, ed. E.B. Goldstein, 265–266. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  100. Hansen, T., and K.R. Gegenfurtner. 2013. Higher order color mechanisms: evidence from noise-masking experiments in cone contrast space. Journal of Vision 13 (1).  https://doi.org/10.1167/13.1.26.
  101. Hardin, C.L. 1988. Color for Philosophers: Unweaving the Rainbow. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  102. Hardin, C.L. 2005. Explaining Basic Color Categories. Cross-Cultural Research 39 (1): 72–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hardin, C.L. 2014. Berlin and Kay Theory. In Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology, ed. R. Luo, 1–4. New York: Springer New York.Google Scholar
  104. Hardin, C.L., and L. Maffi. 1997. Introduction. In Color Categories in Thought and Language, ed. C.L. Hardin and L. Maffi, 1–18. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Harnad, S. 1987. Psychophysical and cognitive aspects of categorical perception: A critical overview. In Categorical Perception: The Groundwork of Cognition, ed. S. Harnad, 287–301. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Harnad, S. 2017. Chapter 2 - To Cognize is to Categorize: Cognition is Categorization A2 - Cohen, Henri. In C. Lefebvre (Ed.), Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science (Second Edition) (pp. 21-54). San Diego: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  107. Harris, J. 2014. Sensation and perception. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  108. Hartcher-O’Brien, J., and M. Auvray. 2014. The Process of Distal Attribution Illuminated Through Studies of Sensory Substitution. Multisens Res 27 (5-6): 421–441.  https://doi.org/10.1163/22134808-00002456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Haynie, H.J., and C. Bowern. 2016. Phylogenetic approach to the evolution of color term systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (48): 13666–13671.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1613666113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Heider, K.G. 1971. The Dugum Dani: A Papuan culture in the highlands of west new Guinea. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  111. Hickerson, N.P. 1971. Review of Basic Color Terms. International Journal of American Linguistics 37: 257–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hickerson, N.P. 1980. Review of "Voir et nommer les couleurs". Language in Society 9 (2): 255–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hill, C. 2011. Named and Unnamed Spaces: Color, Kin, and the Environment in Umpila. The Senses and Society 6 (1): 57–67.  https://doi.org/10.2752/174589311X12893982233759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Holmes, K.J., and P. Wolff. 2012. Does Categorical Perception in the Left Hemisphere Depend on Language? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027289.
  115. Holmes, K.J., K. Moty, and T. Regier. 2017. Revisiting the role of language in spatial cognition: Categorical perception of spatial relations in English and Korean speakers. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review: 1–6.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1268-x.
  116. Holtsmark, T., and A. Valberg. 1969. Colour discrimination and hue. Nature 224 (5217): 366–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Hunt, R.W.G., and M.R. Pointer. 2011. Measuring Colour (4 ed.). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Itti, L., and C. Koch. 2001. Computational modelling of visual attention. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2 (3): 194–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Jacobs, G.H. 2018. Photopigments and the dimensionality of animal color vision. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 86: 108–130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.12.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Jameson, K.A., and N. Alvarado. 2003. Differences in color naming and color salience in Vietnamese and English. Color Research & Application 28: 113–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Jameson, K.A., and R.G. D'Andrade. 1997. It's not really red, green, yellow, blue: an inquiry into perceptual color space. In Color categories in thought an language, ed. C.N. Hardin and L. Maffi, 295–319. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Jameson, K. A., & Komarova, N. L. (2009a). Evolutionary models of color categorization. I. Population categorization systems based on normal and dichromat observers. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 26(6), 1414-1423.Google Scholar
  123. Jameson, K.A., and N.L. Komarova. 2009b. Evolutionary models of color categorization. II. Realistic observer models and population heterogeneity. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 26 (6): 1424–1436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Jones, W. J. 2013. German colour terms : a study in their historical evolution from earliest times to the present (Vol. 119). Amsterdam u.a.Google Scholar
  125. Jraissati, Y. 2014. Proving universalism wrong does not prove relativism right: Considerations on the ongoing color categorization debate. Philosophical Psychology 27 (3): 401–424.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2012.733815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Jraissati, Y., and I. Douven. 2017. Does optimal partitioning of color space account for universal color categorization? PLoS One 12 (6): e0178083.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kay, P. 1975. Synchronic variability and diachronic change in color terms. Language in Society 4: 257–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kay, P. 2015. Universality of color categorization. In Handbook of Color Psychology, ed. A.J. Elliot, A. Franklin, and M.D. Fairchild, 243–244. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  129. Kay, P., and W. Kempton. 1984. What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. American Anthropologist 86: 65–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Kay, P., and L. Maffi. 1999. Color Appearance and the Emergence and Evolution of Basic Color Lexicons. American Anthropologist 101 (4): 743–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Kay, P., and C.K. McDaniel. 1978. The linguistic significance of the meanings of basic color terms. Language 54 (3): 610–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kay, P., and T. Regier. 2003. Resolving the question of color naming universals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100 (15): 9085–9089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Kay, P., and T. Regier. 2006. Language, thought and color: recent developments. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (2): 51–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2005.12.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Kay, P., B. Berlin, and W. Merrifield. 1991. Biocultural implications of systems in color naming. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 1 (1): 12–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kay, P., B. Berlin, L. Maffi, W.R. Merrifield, and R.S. Cook. 2011. The World Color Survey. Chicago: The university of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  136. Kelber, A., and D. Osorio. 2010. From spectral information to animal colour vision: experiments and concepts. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 277 (1688): 1617–1625.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2009.2118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Kemp, C., and T. Regier. 2012. Kinship categories across languages reflect general communicative principles. Science 336 (6084): 1049–1054.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1218811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Kemp, C., Y. Xu, and T. Regier 2018. Semantic typology and efficient communication. Annual Review of Linguistics 4 (1): 109–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Kikutani, M., D. Roberson, and J.R. Hanley. 2008. What's in the name? Categorical perception for unfamiliar faces can occur through labeling. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 15 (4): 787–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Kim, A.I. 1985. Korean Color Terms: an Aspect of semantic Fields and Related Phenomena. Anthropological Linguistics 27 (4): 425–436.Google Scholar
  141. Kim, Y.S., H. Pak, and Y.H. Lee. 2001. A study on Munsell color space for Korean color names. Journal of Korean Society of Color Studies 15: 29–36.Google Scholar
  142. Kirby, S., M. Dowman, and T.L. Griffiths. 2007. Innateness and culture in the evolution of language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (12): 5241–5245.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0608222104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Kohonen, O., J. Parkkinen, and T. Jaaskelainen. 2006. Databases for spectral color science. Color Research and Application 31 (5): 381–390.  https://doi.org/10.1002/Col.20244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Krauskopf, J., and K.R. Gegenfurtner. 1992. Color discrimination and adaptation. Vision Research 32 (11): 2165–2175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Krauskopf, J., D.R. Williams, and D.W. Heeley. 1982. Cardinal directions of color space. Vision Research 22 (9): 1123–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Kremers, J., R.C. Baraas, and N.J. Marshall, eds. 2016. Human Color Vision (1 ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  147. Kuehni, R.G. 2001. Focal colors and unique hues. Color Research & Application 26 (2): 171–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Kuehni, R.G. 2007. Nature and Culture: An Analysis of Individual Focal Color Choices in World Color Survey Languages. Journal of Cognition and Culture 7 (3-4): 151–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Kuehni, R.G. 2014. Unique hues and their stimuli—state of the art. Color Research & Application 39 (3): 279–287.  https://doi.org/10.1002/col.21793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Kuriki, I., Lange, R., Muto, Y., Brown, A. M., Fukuda, K., Tokunaga, R., . . . Shioiri, S. (2017). The modern Japanese color lexicon. Journal of Vision, 17(3), 1-1. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/17.3.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Lee, R.L. 1991. What are “all the colors of the rainbow”? Applied Optics 30 (24): 3401–3407.  https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.30.003401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Lenneberg, E.H. 1953. Cognition in Ethnolonguistics. Language 29 (4): 463–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Levinson, S.C. 2000. Yélî Dnye and the theory of basic color terms. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 10: 3–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Liberman, A.M., K.S. Harris, H.S. Hoffman, and B.C. Griffith. 1957. The discrimination of speech sounds within and across phoneme boundaries. Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (5): 358–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Lillo, J., F. González-Perilli, L. Prado-León, A. Melnikova, L. Álvaro, J.A. Collado, and H. Moreira. 2018. Basic Color Terms (BCTs) and Categories (BCCs) in Three Dialects of the Spanish Language: Interaction Between Cultural and Universal Factors. Frontiers in Psychology 9 (761).  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00761.
  156. Lin, H., M.R. Luo, L.W. MacDonald, and A.W.S. Tarrant. 2001. A cross-cultural colour-naming study. Part I: Using an unconstrained method. Color Research & Application 26 (1): 40–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Lindsey, D.T., and A.M. Brown. 2002. Color Naming and the Phototoxic Effects of Sunlight on the Eye. Psychological Science 13: 506–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Lindsey, D.T., and A.M. Brown. 2006. Universality of color names. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (44): 16608–16613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Lindsey, D.T., and A.M. Brown. 2009. World Color Survey color naming reveals universal motifs and their within-language diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0910981106.
  160. Lindsey, D.T., and A.M. Brown. 2014. The color lexicon of American English. Journal of Vision 14 (2).  https://doi.org/10.1167/14.2.17.
  161. Lindsey, D.T., A.M. Brown, E. Reijnen, A.N. Rich, Y.I. Kuzmova, and J.M. Wolfe. 2010. Color channels, not color appearance or color categories, guide visual search for desaturated color targets. Psychological Science 21 (9): 1208–1214.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610379861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Lindsey, D.T., A.M. Brown, D.H. Brainard, and C.L. Apicella. 2015. Hunter-Gatherer Color Naming Provides New Insight into the Evolution of Color Terms. Current Biology 25 (18): 2441–2446.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Lindsey, D.T., A.M. Brown, D.H. Brainard, and C.L. Apicella. 2016. Hadza Color Terms Are Sparse, Diverse, and Distributed, and Presage the Universal Color Categories Found in Other World Languages. i-Perception 7 (6): 2041669516681807.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2041669516681807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Linhares, J.M., P.D. Pinto, and S.M. Nascimento. 2008. The number of discernible colors in natural scenes. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 25 (12): 2918–2924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Livingston, K.R., J.K. Andrews, and S. Harnad. 1998. Categorical perception effects induced by category learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition 24 (3): 732–753.Google Scholar
  166. Loreto, V., A. Mukherjee, and F. Tria. 2012. On the origin of the hierarchy of color names. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (18): 6819–6824.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1113347109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Lu, A., B.H. Hodges, J. Zhang, and X. Wang. 2012. A Whorfian speed bump? Effects of Chinese color names on recognition across hemispheres. Language Sciences 34 (5): 591–603.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2012.03.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Lucy, J.A. 1992. Language diversity and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Lucy, J.A. 1997a. Linguistic Relativity. Annual review of Anthropology 26: 291–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Lucy, J.A. 1997b. The linguistics of color. In Color categories in thought and language, ed. C.L. Hardin and L. Maffi, 320–346. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Lucy, J.A., and R.A. Shweder. 1979. Whorf and his critics: Linguistic and nonlinguistic influences on color memory. American Anthropologist 81 (3): 581–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Lucy, J.A., and R.A. Shweder. 1988. The Effect of Incidental Conversation on Memory for Focal Colors. American Anthropologist 90 (4): 923–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Lupyan, G. 2012. Linguistically modulated perception and cognition: the label-feedback hypothesis. Frontiers in Psychology 3: 54.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. MacAdam, D.L. 1942. Visual Sensitivities to Color Differences in Daylight. Journal of the Optical Society of America 32 (5): 247–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. MacLaury, R.E. 1997. Ethnographic evidence of unique hues and elemental colors. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2): 202–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. MacLaury, R.E., G.V. Paramei, and D. Dedrick. 2007. Anthropology of color : interdisciplinary multilevel modeling. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins Pub. Co.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Majid, A., and N. Burenhult. 2014. Odors are expressible in language, as long as you speak the right language. Cognition 130 (2): 266–270.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2013.11.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Malkoc, G., P. Kay, and M.A. Webster. 2005. Variations in normal color vision. IV. Binary hues and hue scaling. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 22 (10): 2154–2168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Masaoka, K., R.S. Berns, M.D. Fairchild, and F. Moghareh Abed. 2013. Number of discernible object colors is a conundrum. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 30 (2): 264–277.  https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.30.000264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. McManus, I.C. 1997. Note: Half-a-Million Basic Colour Words: Berlin and Kay and the Usage of Colour Words in Literature and Science. Perception 26 (3): 367–370.  https://doi.org/10.1068/p260367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. McNeill, N.B. 1972. Color and color terminology. Journal of Linguistics 8 (3): 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Merrifield, W.R. 1971. Review of: Basic color terms: Their universality and evolution, by Brent Berlin and Paul Kay. Journal of Linguistics 7: 259–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Mills, C. 1984. English color terms: Language, culture. and psychology. Semiotica 52 (1-2): 95–110.Google Scholar
  184. Miyahara, E. 2003. Focal colors and unique hues. Perceptual and Motor Skills 97 (3 Pt 2): 1038–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Moore, C., and P.J. Durham. 1995. Joint attention. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  186. Moss, A.E. 1989. Basic Color Terms: Problems and Hypotheses. Lingua 78: 313–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Moss, A.E., I.R.L. Davies, G.G. Corbett, and G. Laws. 1990. Mapping Russian Basic Color Terms Using Behavioural Measures. Lingua 82: 313–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Mullen, K.T., and J.J. Kulikowski. 1990. Wavelength discrimination at detection threshold. Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics and image science 7 (4): 733–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Mylonas, D., and L. MacDonald. 2016. Augmenting basic colour terms in english. Color Research & Application 41 (1): 32–42.  https://doi.org/10.1002/col.21944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Nash, D. (2017). Loss of color terms not demonstrated. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(39), E8131-E8131. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1714007114
  191. Newhall, S.M., D. Nickerson, and D.B. Judd. 1943. Final Report of the O.S.A. Subcommittee on the Spacing of the Munsell Colors. Journal of the Optical Society of America 33 (7): 385–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Ocelák, R. 2016. “Categorical Perception” and Linguistic Categorization of Color. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (1): 55–70.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13164-015-0237-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Ogden, C.K., and I.A. Richards. 1923. The Meaning of Meaning. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc..Google Scholar
  194. Olkkonen, M., and S.R. Allred. 2014. Short-term memory affects color perception in context. PLoS One 9 (1): e86488.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Olkkonen, M., C. Witzel, T. Hansen, and K.R. Gegenfurtner. 2009. Categorical color constancy for rendered and real surfaces. Journal of Vision 9 (8): 331, 331a.Google Scholar
  196. Olkkonen, M., C. Witzel, T. Hansen, and K.R. Gegenfurtner. 2010. Categorical color constancy for real surfaces. Journal of Vision 10 (9): 1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1167/10.9.16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Olkkonen, M., P.F. McCarthy, and S.R. Allred. 2014. The central tendency bias in color perception: effects of internal and external noise. Journal of Vision 14 (11).  https://doi.org/10.1167/14.11.5.
  198. Özgen, E. 2004. Language, Learning, and Color Perception. Current Directions in Psychological Science 13 (3): 95–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Özgen, E., and I.R.L. Davies. 1998. Turkish color terms: tests of Berlin and Kay's theory of color universals and linguistic relativity. Linguistics 36 (5): 919–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Özgen, E., and I.R.L. Davies. 2002. Acquisition of Categorical Color Perception: A Perceptual Learning Approach to the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 131 (4): 477–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Ozturk, O., S. Shayan, U. Liszkowski, and A. Majid. 2013. Language is not necessary for color categories. Developmental Science 16 (1): 111–115.  https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Paggetti, G., G. Menegaz, and G.V. Paramei. 2016. Color naming in Italian language. Color Research & Application 41 (4): 402–415.  https://doi.org/10.1002/col.21953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Pak, H.S., I.J. Kim, Y.S. Kim, and M.Y. Lee. 2004. An exploratory study on the expressions with Korean color-names and modifiers. Journal of Korean Society of Color Studies 18: 11–21.Google Scholar
  204. Paramei, G.V. 2005. Singing the Russian Blues: An Argument for Culturally Basic Color Terms. Cross-Cultural Research 39 (1): 10–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Paramei, G.V., Y.A. Griber, and D. Mylonas. 2018. An online color naming experiment in Russian using Munsell color samples. Color Research & Application 43 (3): 358–374.  https://doi.org/10.1002/col.22190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Paulsen, G., M. Uusküla, and J. Brindle. 2016. Color Language and Color Categorization. In Newcastle upon Tyne. UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  207. Philipona, D.L., and J.K. O'Regan. 2006. Color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation predicted from singularities in reflection properties. Visual Neuroscience 23 (3-4): 331–339.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952523806233182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Pilling, M., A. Wiggett, E. Özgen, and I.R.L. Davies. 2003. Is color "categorical perception" really perceptual? Memory & Cognition 31 (4): 538–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Pitchford, N.J., and K.T. Mullen. 2002. Is the acquisition of basic-colour terms in young children constrained? Perception 31 (11): 1349–1370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Pylyshyn, Z. 1999. Is vision continuous with cognition? The case for cognitive impenetrability of visual perception. Behavioural and Brain Sciences 22 (3): 341–365 discussion 366-423.Google Scholar
  211. Regier, T., and P. Kay. 2009. Language, thought, and color: Whorf was half right. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (10): 439–446.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2009.07.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Regier, T., and Y. Xu 2017. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and inference under uncertainty. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science 8 (6): e1440.Google Scholar
  213. Regier, T., P. Kay, and R.S. Cook. 2005. Focal colors are universal after all. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 (23): 8386–8391.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0503281102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Regier, T., P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal. 2007. Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104 (4): 1436–1441.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0610341104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Regier, T., C. Kemp, and P. Kay. 2015. Word meanings across languages support efficient communication. In The handbook of language emergence, ed. B. MacWhinney and W. O'Grady, 237–263. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  216. Roberson, D. 2005. Color categories are culturally diverse in cognition as well as in language. Cross-Cultural Research 39 (1): 56–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Roberson, D., and J. Davidoff. 2000. The categorical perception of colors and facial expressions: the effect of verbal interference. Memory & Cognition 28 (6): 977–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Roberson, D., and J.R. Hanley. 2009. Only half right: comment on Regier and Kay. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (12): 500–501; author reply 501.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2009.10.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Roberson, D., I.R.L. Davies, and J. Davidoff. 2000. Color categories are not universal: replications and new evidence from a stone-age culture. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 129 (3): 369–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Roberson, D., J. Davidoff, I.R.L. Davies, and L.R. Shapiro. 2005a. Color categories: evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis. Cognitive Psychology 50 (4): 378–411.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2004.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Roberson, D., I.R.L. Davies, G.G. Corbett, and M. Vandervyver. 2005b. Freesorting of colors across cultures: Are there universal grounds for grouping? Journal of Cognition and Culture 5: 349–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Roberson, D., H. Pak, and J.R. Hanley. 2008. Categorical perception of colour in the left and right visual field is verbally mediated: Evidence from Korean. Cognition 107 (2): 752–762.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2007.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Roberson, D., J.R. Hanley, and H. Pak. 2009. Thresholds for color discrimination in English and Korean speakers. Cognition 112 (3): 482–487.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.06.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Robinson, S. (Writer). (2011). Do You See What I See? In S. Robinson (Producer), Horizon. London: BBC Two.Google Scholar
  225. Rosch Heider, E. 1971. 'Focal' color areas and the development of names. Developmental Psychology 4: 447–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Rosch Heider, E. 1972a. Probabilities, Sampling. and Ethnographic Method. Man 7 (3): 448–466.Google Scholar
  227. Rosch Heider, E. 1973. Natural categories. Cognitive Psychology, 4 (3): 328–350.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(73)90017-0
  228. Rosch Heider, E. 1972b. Universals in color naming and memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (1): 10–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Sandell, J.H., C.G. Gross, and M.H. Bornstein 1979. Color categories in macaques. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 93 (4): 626–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Sandford, J. L. 2012. Blu, azzurro, celeste- What color is blue for Italian speakers compared to English speakers? In M. Rossi (Ed.), Colour and Colorimetry. Multidisciplinary Contributions. Vol. VIII B (pp. 281-288).Google Scholar
  231. Sapir, E. 1912. Language and Environment. American Anthropologist 14 (2): 226–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Saunders, B.A.C. 1995. Disinterring Basic Color Terms: a study in the mystique of cognitivism. History of the Human Sciences 8 (4): 19–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Saunders, B.A.C. 2000. Revisiting Basic Color Terms. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 6 (1): 81–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Saunders, B.A.C. 2007. The Debate about Colour Naming in 19th Century German Philology. Belgium: Leuven.Google Scholar
  235. Saunders, B.A.C., and J. van Brakel. 1997. Are there non-trivial constraints on colour categorization? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2): 167–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Schneider, R. U. 2002. Das Experiment -- Die Eskimos und der Schnee. Neue Züricher Zeitung.Google Scholar
  237. Schouten, B., E. Gerrits, and A. van Hessen. 2003. The end of categorical perception as we know it. Speech Communication 41: 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Self, E.M. 2014. Unique Hues. In Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology, ed. R. Luo, 1–4. New York: Springer New York.Google Scholar
  239. Shevell, S.K. 2003. Color Appearance. In The Science of Color, ed. S.K. Shevell, 149–190. Oxford: Elsevier Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Shevell, S.K., and P.R. Martin. 2017. Color opponency: tutorial. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 34 (7): 1099–1108.  https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.34.001099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Shinoda, H., K. Uchikawa, and M. Ikeda. 1993. Categorized color space on CRT in the aperture and the surface color mode. Color Research & Application 18 (5): 326–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Skelton, A.E., G. Catchpole, J.T. Abbott, J.M. Bosten, and A. Franklin. 2017. Biological origins of color categorization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114 (21): 5545–5550.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1612881114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Smithson, H.E., P.S. Anderson, G. Dinkova-Bruun, R.A. Fosbury, G.E. Gasper, P. Laven, et al. 2014. Color-coordinate system from a 13th-century account of rainbows. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 31 (4): A341–A349.  https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.31.00A341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Snow, D.L. 1971. Samoan Color Terminology a Note on the Universality and Evolutionary Ordering of Color Terms. Anthropological Linguistics 13 (8): 385–390.Google Scholar
  245. Steels, L., and T. Belpaeme. 2005. Coordinating perceptually grounded categories through language: A case study for colour. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28: 469–529.Google Scholar
  246. Stockman, A., and L.T. Sharpe. 2000. The spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype. Vision Research 40 (13): 1711–1737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Sturges, J., and T.W.A. Whitfield. 1997. Salient features of Munsell colour space as a function of monolexemic naming and response latencies. Vision Research 37 (3): 307–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Suegami, T., S. Aminihajibashi, and B. Laeng. 2014. Another look at category effects on colour perception and their left hemispheric lateralisation: no evidence from a colour identification task. Cognitive processing 15 (2): 217–226.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-013-0595-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Taft, C., and L. Sivik. 1997. Salient Color Terms in Four Languages. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 38 (1): 29–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Thierry, G., P. Athanasopoulos, A. Wiggett, B. Dering, and J.-R. Kuipers. 2009. Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106 (11): 4567–4570.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0811155106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Tyson, R.E. 1998. Color Naming and Color Categorization in Korean. Japanese/Korean. Linguistics 7: 177–196.Google Scholar
  252. Uchikawa, K. 2014. Categorical color perception of color normal and deficient observers. Optical Review 21 (6): 911–918.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10043-014-0144-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Uchikawa, K., and R.M. Boynton. 1987. Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans. Vision Research 27 (10): 1825–1833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Uchikawa, H., K. Uchikawa, and R.M. Boynton. 1989. Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors. Vision Research 29 (7): 881–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Valberg, A. 2001. Unique hues: an old problem for a new generation. Vision Research 41 (13): 1645–1657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Vazquez-Corral, J., J.K. O'Regan, M. Vanrell, and G.D. Finlayson. 2012. A new spectrally sharpened sensor basis to predict color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation. Journal of Vision 12 (6): 7.  https://doi.org/10.1167/12.6.7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Vox 2016. The surprising pattern behind color names around the world. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gMqZR3pqMjg
  258. Wandell, B.A., and L.D. Silverstein. 2003. In The Science of Color, ed. ). Color Appearance. In S. K. Shevell (Ed.), 281–316. Oxford: Elsevier Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Webster, M. A., & Kay, P. (2007). Individual and Population Differences in Focal Colors. In R. E. MacLaury, G. V. Paramei, & D. Dedrick (eds.), Anthropology of Color. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  260. Webster, M.A., and P. Kay. 2012. Color categories and color appearance. Cognition 122 (3): 375–392.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2011.11.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Webster, M.A., E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, and V.E. Raker. 2000. Variations in normal color vision. II. Unique hues. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 17 (9): 1545–1555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Weiss, D., C. Witzel, and K. Gegenfurtner. 2017. Determinants of Colour Constancy and the Blue Bias. i-Perception 8 (6): 2041669517739635.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2041669517739635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Welsch, N., and C.C. Liebmann. 2004. Farben. Natur - Technik - Kunst. Heidelberg: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag.Google Scholar
  264. Wescott, R.W. 1970. Bini Color Terms. Anthropological Linguistics 12 (9): 349–360.Google Scholar
  265. Whorf, B.L. 1956. Language, Thought and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  266. Winawer, J., and N. Witthoft. 2014. Effect of Color Terms on Color Perception. In Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology, ed. R. Luo, 1–9. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  267. Winawer, J., N. Witthoft, M.C. Frank, L. Wu, A.R. Wade, and L. Boroditsky. 2007. Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104 (19): 7780–7785.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0701644104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Witzel, C. 2012. Colours' appearance in the light of language and experience. (Dr. rer. nat. Dissertation), Justus-Liebig-Universität, Gießen.Google Scholar
  269. Witzel, C. 2016. New Insights Into the Evolution of Color Terms or an Effect of Saturation? i-Perception 7 (5): 1–4.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2041669516662040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Witzel, C. 2018. The role of saturation in colour naming and colour appearance. In Progress in Colour Studies: Cognition, language and beyond, ed. L.W. MacDonald, C.P. Biggam, and G.V. Paramei. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company (in press).Google Scholar
  271. Witzel, C., and A. Franklin. 2014. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"? Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision 31 (4): A365–A374.  https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.31.00A365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Witzel, C., and K.R. Gegenfurtner. 2011. Is there a lateralized category effect for color? Journal of Vision 11 (12): 16.  https://doi.org/10.1167/11.12.16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Witzel, C., and K.R. Gegenfurtner. 2013. Categorical sensitivity to color differences. Journal of Vision 13 (7).  https://doi.org/10.1167/13.7.1.
  274. Witzel, C., and K.R. Gegenfurtner. 2014. Category effects on colour discrimination. In Colour Studies: A broad spectrum, ed. W. Anderson, C.P. Biggam, C.A. Hough, and C.J. Kay, 200–211. Amsterdam: John Benjamin Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  275. Witzel, C., and K.R. Gegenfurtner. 2015. Categorical facilitation with equally discriminable colors. Journal of Vision 15 (8): 22.  https://doi.org/10.1167/15.8.22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Witzel, C., and K.R. Gegenfurtner. 2016. Categorical perception for red and brown. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance 42 (4): 540–570.  https://doi.org/10.1037/xhp0000154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Witzel, C., and K.R. Gegenfurtner. 2018. Are red, yellow, green, and blue perceptual categories? Vision Research.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2018.04.002.
  278. Witzel, C., and K.R. Gegenfurtner. in press. Color Perception: Objects, constancy and categories. Annual Review of Vision Science 4.Google Scholar
  279. Witzel, C., and J. Hammermeister. 2017. Typical and unique hues depend on saturation. In Paper presented at the ICVS2017. Germany: Erlangen.Google Scholar
  280. Witzel, C., Hansen, T., & Gegenfurtner, K. R. 2008. Wie sich Farben mit den Betrachtern und mit den Zeiten ändern. Paper presented at the Tagung experimentell arbeitender Psychologen (TeaP), Marburg.Google Scholar
  281. Witzel, C., Flack, Z., & Franklin, A. 2013a. Categorical colour constancy during colour term acquisition. Paper presented at the AIC2013 - 12th international AIC congress, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.Google Scholar
  282. Witzel, C., J. Maule, and A. Franklin. 2013b. Focal colors as perceptual anchors of color categories. Journal of Vision 13 (9 (VSS abstracts): 1164–1164.  https://doi.org/10.1167/13.9.1164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Witzel, C., F. Cinotti, and J.K. O'Regan. 2015. What determines the relationship between color naming, unique hues, and sensory singularities: Illuminations, surfaces, or photoreceptors? Journal of Vision 15 (8): 19.  https://doi.org/10.1167/15.8.19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Witzel, C., M. Olkkonen, and K.R. Gegenfurtner. 2016a. Memory colours affect colour appearance. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39: 51–52.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X15002587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Witzel, C., C. van Alphen, C. Godau, and J.K. O'Regan. 2016b. Uncertainty of sensory signal explains variation of color constancy. Journal of Vision 16 (15): 8.  https://doi.org/10.1167/16.15.8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Witzel, C., M. Olkkonen, and K.R. Gegenfurtner. 2018. A Bayesian Model of the Memory Colour Effect. Iperception 9 (2): 1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2041669518771715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Witzel, C., Maule, J., & Franklin, A. under revision. Are red, yellow, green and blue particularly “colorful”?Google Scholar
  288. Wolff, P., and K.J. Holmes. 2011. Linguistic relativity. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science 2 (3): 253–265.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Wright, W.D., and F.H.G. Pitt. 1934. Hue Discrimination in normal colour-vision. Proceedings of the Physical Society of London 46: 459–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Wuerger, S., and K. Xiao. 2014. Color Vision, Opponent Theory. In Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology, ed. R. Luo, 1–6. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  291. Wuerger, S.M., L.T. Maloney, and J. Krauskopf. 1995. Proximity judgments in color space: tests of a Euclidean color geometry. Vision Research 35 (6): 827–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Wuerger, S.M., P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper 2005. The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms. Vision Research 45 (25-26): 3210–3223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Yang, J., S. Kanazawa, and M.K. Yamaguchi. 2013. Can Infants Tell the Difference between Gold and Yellow? PLoS One 8 (6): e67535.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Yendrikhovskij, S.N. 2001. A computational model of colour categorization. Color Research & Application 26 (S1): S235–S238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Zhou, K., L. Mo, P. Kay, V.P.Y. Kwok, T.N.M. Ip, and L.H. Tan. 2010. Newly trained lexical categories produce lateralized categorical perception of color. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107 (22): 9974–9978.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1005669107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Zimmer, A.C. 1982. What Really is Turquoise? A Note on the Evolution of Color Terms. Psychological Research 44: 213–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Zollinger, H. 1984. Why just turquoise? Remarks on the evolution of color terms. Psychological Research 46 (4): 403–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Zollinger, H. 1988. Categorical color perception: influence of cultural factors on the differentiation of primary and derived basic color terms in color naming by Japanese children. Vision Research 28 (12): 1379–1382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Allgemeine PsychologieJustus-Liebig-Universität GießenGiessenGermany

Personalised recommendations