Review of Philosophy and Psychology

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 559–579 | Cite as

Evolution, Development, and Human Social Cognition

Article

Abstract

Explaining the causal origins of what are taken to be uniquely human capacities for understanding the mind in the first years of life is a primary goal of social cognitive development research, which concerns so called “theory of mind” or “mindreading” skills. We review and discuss particular examples of this research in the context of its underlying evolutionary conceptual framework known as the neo-Darwinian modern synthesis. It is increasingly recognized that the modern synthesis is limited in its neglect of developmental issues. A recent convergence of work from diverse sources, including but not limited to evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) and developmental systems approaches, demonstrate the need for a developmental expansion of modern evolutionary theory. We attempt to show that not only are nativist explanations of early human social cognition vulnerable to the criticisms of this developmental shift in thinking, but that these criticisms also problematize the dominant and more mainstream theories in early social cognitive development research. We conclude by discussing the importance of developmental analysis in understanding the ontogeny of cognitive capacities in individuals as well as species.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Preparation of this article was supported by a Doctoral Scholarship and a Standard Research Grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) awarded to the authors, respectively. We thank the four anonymous reviewers who provided generous feedback on a previous version of this article. We would also like to thank Paul Egré for his comments on our manuscript and his assistance throughout the review process.

References

  1. Alberch, P. 1991. From genes to phenotype: Dynamical systems and evolvability. Genetica 84: 5–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baillargeon, R., R.M. Scott, and Z. He. 2010. False-belief understanding in infants. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14: 110–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baron-Cohen, S. 1995. Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baron-Cohen, S., and J. Swettenham. 1996. The relationship between SAM and ToMM: Two hypotheses. In Theories of theories of mind, ed. P. Carruthers and P.K. Smith, 158–168. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bateson, P. 1996. Design for a life. In The lifespan development of individuals: Behavioral, neurobiological, and psychosocial perspectives, ed. D. Magnusson, 1–20. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bateson, P., and M. Mameli. 2007. The innate and the acquired: Useful clusters or a residual distinction from folk biology? Developmental Psychobiology 49: 818–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boesch, C. 2007. What makes us human (Homo sapiens)? The challenge of cognitive cross- species comparison. Journal of Comparative Psychology 121: 227–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boesch, C. 2008. Taking development and ecology seriously when comparing cognition: Reply to Tomasello and Call (2008). Journal of Comparative Psychology 122: 453–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boyd, R., P.J. Richerson, and J. Henrich. 2011. The cultural niche: Why social learning is essential for human adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108: 10918–10925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brauer, J., J. Kaminski, J. Riedel, J. Call, and M. Tomasello. 2006. Making inferences about the location of hidden food: Social dog, causal ape. Journal of Comparative Psychology 120: 38–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buss, D.M. 1995. Evolutionary psychology: A new paradigm for psychological science. Psychological Inquiry 6: 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Butterworth, G. 1991. The ontogeny and phylogeny of joint visual attention. In Natural theories of mind, ed. A. Whiten, 223–232. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  13. Call, J., and M. Tomasello. 1996. The effect of humans on the cognitive development of apes. In Reaching into thoughts: The minds of the great apes, ed. A.E. Russon, K.A. Bard, and S.T. Parker, 371–403. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Call, J., and M. Tomasello. 2008a. Assessing the validity of ape-human comparisons: A reply to Boesch (2007). Journal of Comparative Psychology 122: 449–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Call, J., and M. Tomasello. 2008b. Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? 30 years later. Trends in Cognitive Science 12: 187–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Callebaut, W., G.B. Müller, and S.A. Newman. 2007. The organismic systems approach: Evo-devo and the streamlining of the naturalistic agenda. In Integrating evolution and development: From theory to practice, ed. R. Sansom and R.N. Brandon, 25–92. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  17. Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. 1998. Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 63(4): i+iii+v–vi+1–174.Google Scholar
  18. Carroll, S.B. 2005. Endless forms most beautiful: The new science of evo devo. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  19. Carruthers, P. 1996. Simulation and self-knowledge: A defence of theory-theory. In Theories of theories of mind, ed. P. Carruthers and P.K. Smith, 22–38. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carruthers, P., and P.K. Smith. 1996a. Theories of theories of mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carruthers, P., and P.K. Smith. 1996b. Introduction. In Theories of theories of mind, ed. P. Carruthers and P.K. Smith, 1–8. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carstairs-McCarthy, A. 2007. Language evolution: What linguists can contribute. Lingua 117: 503–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Confer, J.C., J.A. Easton, D.S. Fleischman, C.D. Goetz, D.M.G. Lewis, C. Perilloux, and D.M. Buss. 2010. Evolutionary psychology: Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations. American Psychologist 65: 110–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cosmides, L., J. Tooby, and J.H. Barkow. 1992. Introduction: Evolutionary psychology and conceptual integration. In The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture, ed. J.H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, and J. Tooby, 3–15. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Crawford, C.B. 1989. The theory of evolution: Of what value to psychology? Journal of Comparative Psychology 103: 4–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crick, F. 1970. Central dogma of molecular biology. Nature 227: 561–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Waal, F.B.M., C. Boesch, V. Horner, and A. Whiten. 2008. Comparing social skills of children and apes. Science 319: 569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Di Sciullo, A.M., M. Piattelli-Palmarini, K. Wexler, R.C. Berwick, C. Boeckx, L. Jenkins, et al. 2010. The biological nature of human language. Biolinguistics 4: 4–34.Google Scholar
  29. Dupré, J. 2001. Human nature and the limits of science. Oxford: Clarendon.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Finlay, B. 2007. Endless minds most beautiful. Developmental Science 10: 30–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fitch, W.T., M.D. Hauser, and N. Chomsky. 2005. The evolution of the language faculty: Clarifications and implications. Cognition 97: 179–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gilbert, S.F. 2001. Ecological developmental biology: Developmental biology meets the real world. Developmental Biology 233: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gilbert, S.F. 2003. Evo-devo, devo-evo, and devgen-popgen. Biology and Philosophy 18: 347–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gilbert, S.F., and D. Epel. 2009. Ecological developmental biology: Integrating epigenetics, medicine, and evolution. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  35. Gilbert, S.F., J.M. Opitz, and R.A. Raff. 1996. Resynthesizing evolutionary and developmental biology. Developmental Biology 173: 357–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gopnik, A. 1996. Theories and modules; creation myths, developmental realities, and Neurath’s boat. In Theories of theories of mind, ed. P. Carruthers and P.K. Smith, 169–183. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gottlieb, G. 1976. Conceptions of prenatal development: Behavioral embryology. Psychological Review 83: 215–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gottlieb, G. 1996. A systems view of psychobiological development. In The lifespan development of individuals: Behavioral, neurobiological, and psychosocial perspectives, ed. D. Magnusson, 76–103. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Gottlieb, G. 2000. Environmental and behavioral influences on gene activity. Current Directions in Psychological Science 9: 93–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gottlieb, G. 2002. Individual development and evolution: The genesis of novel behaviour. Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  41. Gottlieb, G. 2007. Probabilistic epigenesis. Developmental Science 10: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gray, R.D. 1992. Death of the gene: Developmental systems strike back. In Trees of life, ed. P.E. Griffiths, 165–210. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  43. Griesemer, J. 2000. Development, culture, and the units of inheritance. Philosophy of Science 67(supplement): S348–S368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Griffiths, P.E. 2002. What is innateness? The Monist 85: 70–85.Google Scholar
  45. Griffiths, P.E. 2007. Evo-devo meets the mind: Toward a developmental evolutionary psychology. In Integrating evolution and development: From theory to practice, ed. R. Sansom and R.N. Brandon, 195–225. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  46. Griffiths, P.E., and R.D. Gray. 1994. Developmental systems and evolutionary explanation. Journal of Philosophy 91: 277–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Griffiths, P.E., and R.D. Knight. 1998. What is the developmentalist challenge? Philosophy of Science 65: 253–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Griffiths, P.E., and E.M. Neumann-Held. 1999. The many faces of the gene. Bioscience 49: 656–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Griffiths, P.E., and K. Stotz. 2000. How the mind grows: A developmental perspective on the biology of cognition. Synthese 122: 29–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hall, B.K. 2000. Guest editorial: Evo-devo or devo-evo - does it matter? Evolution & Development 2: 177–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hamburger, V. 1980. Embryology and the modern synthesis in evolutionary theory. In The evolutionary synthesis: Perspectives on the unification of biology, ed. E. Mayr and W.B. Provine, 97–112. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Henrich, J., S.J. Heine, and A. Norenzayan. 2010. The weirdest people in the world? The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33: 61–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Herrmann, E., J. Call, M.V. Hernández-Lloreda, B. Hare, and M. Tomasello. 2007. Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: The cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science 317: 1360–1366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Herrmann, E., J. Call, M.V. Hernández-Lloreda, B. Hare, and M. Tomasello. 2008. Response to de Waal et al. Science 319: 570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ioannidis, S. 2008. How development changes evolution: Conceptual and historical issues in evolutionary developmental biology. Biology and Philosophy 23: 567–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jablonka, E., and M. Lamb. 2002. Creating bridges or rifts? Developmental systems theory and evolutionary developmental biology. BioEssays 24: 290–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jablonka, E., and M.J. Lamb. 2005. Evolution in four dimensions. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  58. Jablonka, E., and M. Lamb. 2007. The expanded evolutionary synthesis—a response to Godfrey-Smith, Haig, and West-Eberhard. Biology and Philosophy 22: 453–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jablonka, E., and G. Raz. 2009. Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: Prevalence, mechanisms, and implications for the study of heredity and evolution. The Quarterly Review of Biology 84: 131–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Johnston, T.D. 1987. The persistence of dichotomies in the study of behavioral development. Developmental Review 7: 149–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Johnston, T.D., and L. Edwards. 2002. Genes, interactions, and the development of behavior. Psychological Review 109: 26–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Johnston, T.D., and G. Gottlieb. 1990. Neophenogenesis: A developmental theory of phenotypic evolution. Journal of Theoretical Biology 147: 471–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Laland, K.N., Odling-Smee, and S.F. Gilbert. 2008. Evodevo and niche construction: Building bridges. The Journal of Experimental Zoology 310B: 549–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Leavens, D.A., W.D. Hopkins, and R.K. Thomas. 2004. Referential communications by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology 118: 48–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Leavens, D.A., W.D. Hopkins, and K.A. Bard. 2008. The heterochronic origins of explicit reference. In The shared mind: Perspectives on intersubjectivity, ed. J. Zlatev, T.P. Racine, C. Sinha, and E. Itkonen, 187–214. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  66. Leavens, D.A., and T.P. Racine. 2009. Joint attention in apes and humans: Are humans unique? Journal of Consciousness Studies 16: 240–267.Google Scholar
  67. Lehrman, D.S. 1953. A critique of Konrad Lorenz’s theory of instinctive behavior. The Quarterly Review of Biology 28: 337–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lehrman, D.S. 1970. Semantic and conceptual issues in the nature-nurture problem. In Development and evolution of behavior, ed. L.R. Aronson, E. Tobach, D.S. Lehrman, and J.S. Rosenblatt, 17–52. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  69. Leslie, A.M. 1987. Pretense and representation: The origins of “theory of mind”. Psychological Review 94: 412–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Leslie, A.M. 1989. Some implications of pretense for mechanisms underlying the child’s theory of mind. In Developing theories of mind, ed. J.W. Astington, P.L. Harris, and D.R. Olson, 19–46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Leslie, A.M. 1991. The theory of mind impairment in autism: Evidence for a modular mechanism of development? In Natural theories of mind, ed. A. Whiten, 19–46. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  72. Leslie, A.M. 1994. Pretending and believing: Issues in the theory of ToMM. Cognition 50: 211–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lewontin, R.C. 1983. Gene, organism, and environment. In Evolution: From molecules to man, ed. D.S. Bedall, 273–285. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.Google Scholar
  74. Lickliter, R. 2000. An ecological approach to behavioral development: Insights from comparative psychology. Ecological Psychology 12: 319–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lickliter, R. 2008. The growth of developmental thought: Implications for a new evolutionary psychology. New Ideas in Psychology 26: 353–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lickliter, R., and T.D. Berry. 1990. The phylogeny fallacy: Developmental psychology’s misapplication of evolutionary theory. Developmental Review 10: 348–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lickliter, R., A.B. Dyer, and T. McBride. 1993. Perceptual consequences of early social experience in precocial birds. Behavioural Processes 30: 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lickliter, R., and H. Honeycutt. 2003. Developmental dynamics: Toward a biologically plausible evolutionary psychology. Psychological Bulletin 129: 819–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Liebal, K., T. Behne, M. Carpenter, and M. Tomasello. 2009. Infants use shared experience to interpret pointing gestures. Developmental Science 12: 264–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Liszkowski, U., M. Carpenter, and M. Tomasello. 2007. Reference and attitude in infant pointing. Journal of Child Language 34: 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Love, A.C., and R.A. Raff. 2003. Knowing your ancestors: Themes in the history of evo-devo. Evolution & Development 5: 327–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mameli, M., and P. Bateson. 2006. Innateness and the sciences. Biology and Philosophy 21: 155–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mayr, E. 1961. Cause and effect in biology. Science 134: 1501–1506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Meltzoff, A.N., and A. Gopnik. 1993. The role of imitation in understanding persons and developing a theory of mind. In Understanding other minds: Perspectives from autism, ed. S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, and D.J. Cohen, 335–366. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Meltzoff, A.N., and M.K. Moore. 1998. Infant intersubjectivity: Broadening the dialogue to include imitation, identity and intention. In Intersubjective communication and emotion in early ontogeny, ed. S. Brȧten, 47–62. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Moore, D.S. 2002. The dependent gene. New York: Times Books/Henry Holt.Google Scholar
  87. Moss, L. 1992. A kernel of truth? On the reality of the genetic program. In Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 1991: Vol. 1, ed. D. Hull, A. Fine, and M. Forbes, 335–348. East Lansing: The Philosophy of Science Association.Google Scholar
  88. Müller, G.B. 2007. Evo-devo: Extending the evolutionary synthesis. Nature Reviews Genetics 8(12): 943–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Müller, G.B., and S.A. Newman. 2003. Origination of organismal form: The forgotten cause in evolutionary theory. In Origination of organismal form: Beyond the gene in developmental and evolutionary biology, ed. G.B. Muller and S.A. Newman, 3–10. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  90. Niyogi, P., and R.C. Berwick. 1996. Evolutionary consequences of language learning. Linguistics & Philosophy 20: 697–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Noble, D. 2010. Biophysics and systems biology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 368: 1125–1139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Noble, D. 2011. Neo-Darwinism, the modern synthesis and selfish genes: Are they of use in physiology? The Journal of Physiology 589: 1007–1015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Odling-Smee, F.J., K.N. Laland, and M.W. Feldman. 1996. Niche construction. The American Naturalist 147: 641–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Odling-Smee, F.J., K.N. Laland, and M.W. Feldman. 2003. Niche construction: The neglected process in evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Oyama, S. 1985. The ontogeny of information: Developmental systems and evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Oyama, S. 2000. Causal democracy and causal contributions in developmental systems theory. Philosophy of Science 67(supplement): S332–S347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Oyama, S., P.E. Griffiths, and R.D. Gray. 2001. Cycles of contingency: Developmental systems & evolution. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  98. Penn, D.C., K.J. Holyoak, and D.J. Povinelli. 2008. Darwin’s mistake: Explaining the discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31: 109–178.Google Scholar
  99. Pigliucci, M. 2009. An extended synthesis for evolutionary biology. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1168: 218–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pigliucci, M., and G.B. Müller. 2010. Evolution: The extended synthesis. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  101. Ploeger, A., H.L.J. van der Maas, and M.E.J. Raijmakers. 2008. Is evolutionary psychology a meta-theory for psychology? A discussion of four major issues in psychology from an evolutionary developmental perspective. Psychological Inquiry 19: 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Racine, T.P. 2012. Getting beyond rich and lean views of joint attention. In Joint attention: Developments in philosophy of mind, developmental and comparative psychology and cognitive science, ed. A. Seemann, 21–42. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  103. Racine, T.P., D.A. Leavens, N. Susswein, and T.J. Wereha. 2008. Conceptual and methodological issues in the investigation of primate intersubjectivity. In Enacting intersubjectivity: A cognitive and social perspective to the study of interactions, ed. F. Morganti, A. Carassa, and G. Riva, 65–79. Amsterdam: Ios Press.Google Scholar
  104. Racine, T.P., T.J. Wereha, and D.A. Leavens. 2012. To what extent nonhuman primates are intersubjective and why. In Moving ourselves, moving others: Motion and emotion in intersubjectivity, consciousness and language, ed. A. Foolen, U. Lüdtke, T.P. Racine, and J. Zlatev. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  105. Reid, R.G.B. 2007. Biological emergences: Evolution by natural experiment. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  106. Robert, J.S. 2002. How developmental is evolutionary developmental biology? Biology and Philosophy 17: 591–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Robert, J.S. 2003. Developmental systems and animal behaviour. Biology and Philosophy 18: 477–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Robert, J.S. 2004. Embryology, epigenesis, and evolution: Taking development seriously. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sansom, R., and R.N. Brandon. 2007. In Integrating evolution and development: From theory to practice, ed. R. Sansom and R.N. Brandon. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  110. Sapp, J. 1987. Beyond the gene: Cytoplasmic inheritance and the struggle for authority in genetics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Shishkin, M.A. 1992. Evolution as a maintenance of ontogenetic stability. Acta Zoologica Fennica 191: 37–42.Google Scholar
  112. Smith, L.B. 1999. Do infants possess innate knowledge structures? The con side. Developmental Science 2: 133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Spencer, J.P., M.S. Blumberg, B. McMurray, S.R. Robinson, L.K. Samuelson, and J.B. Tomblin. 2009. Short arms and talking eggs: Why we should no longer abide the nativist-empiricist debate. Child Development Perspectives 2: 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sterelny, K. 2000a. Development, evolution, and adaptation. Philosophy of Science 67(supplement): S369–S387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sterelny, K. 2000b. The “genetic program” program: A commentary on Maynard Smith on information in biology. Philosophy of Science 67: 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sterelny, K. 2012. The evolved apprentice: How evolution made humans unique. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  117. Sterelny, K., and P.S. Kitcher. 1988. The return of the gene. Journal of Philosophy 85: 339–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Susswein, N., and T.P. Racine. 2008. Sharing mental states: Causal and definitional issues in intersubjectivity. In The shared mind: Perspectives on intersubjectivity, ed. J. Zlatev, T.P. Racine, C. Sinha, and E. Itkonen, 141–162. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  119. Taylor, A.H., D. Elliffe, G.R. Hunt, and R.D. Gray. 2010. Complex cognition and behavioural innovation in New Caledonian crows. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277: 2637–2643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Taylor, A.H., and R.D. Gray. 2009. Animal cognition: Aesop’s fable flies from fiction to fact. Current Biology 19: R731–R732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tinbergen, N. 1963. On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschirift für Tierpsychologie 20: 410–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tomasello, M. 1995a. Joint attention as social cognition. In Joint attention: Its origins and role in development, ed. C. Moore and P.J. Dunham, 103–130. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  123. Tomasello, M. 1995b. Language is not an instinct. Cognitive Development 10: 131–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tomasello, M. 1999a. The cultural origins of human cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  125. Tomasello, M. 1999b. The human adaptation for culture. Annual Review of Anthropology 28: 509–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tomasello, M. 2003. Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Tomasello, M. 2008. Origins of human communication. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  128. Tomasello, M. 2009. Why we cooperate. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  129. Tomasello, M., and J. Call. 2008. Assessing the validity of ape-human comparisons: A reply to Boesch (2007). Journal of Comparative Psychology 122: 449–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Tomasello, M., J. Call, and B. Hare. 2003. Chimpanzees understand psychological states-the question is which ones and to what extent. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7: 153–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Tomasello, M., and M. Carpenter. 2007. Shared intentionality. Developmental Science 10: 121–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tomasello, M., M. Carpenter, J. Call, T. Behne, and H. Moll. 2005. Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28: 675–735.Google Scholar
  133. Tomasello, M., M. Carpenter, and U. Liszkowski. 2007. A new look at infant pointing. Child Development 78: 705–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Trevarthen, C., and K.J. Aitken. 2001. Infant intersubjectivity: Research, theory, and clinical applications. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 42: 3–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wagner, G.P. 2000. What is the promise of developmental evolution? Part I: Why is developmental biology necessary to explain evolutionary innovations? Journal of Experimental Zoology (Molecular & Developmental Evolution) 288: 95–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wereha, T.J., and T.P. Racine. 2009a. Belief in evolved belief systems: Artifact of a limited evolutionary model? The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32: 537–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wereha, T.J., and T.P. Racine. 2009b. Evolutionary psychology at a crossroads? Journal of Research in Character Education 6: 95–99.Google Scholar
  138. West, M.J., and A.P. King. 1977. Species identification in the North American cowbird: Appropriate responses to abnormal song. Science 195: 1002–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. West-Eberhard, M.J. 2003. Developmental plasticity and evolution. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  140. West-Eberhard, M.J. 2005. Developmental plasticity and the origin of species differences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102: 6543–6549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Wilson, O.E. 2000. Sociobiology: The new synthesis, twenty-fifth anniversaryth ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  142. Zulley, J. 2000. The influence of isolation on psychological and physiological variables. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 71(supplement): A44–A47.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologySimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada

Personalised recommendations