Review of Philosophy and Psychology

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 297–314

Accentuate the Negative

  • Joshua Alexander
  • Ronald Mallon
  • Jonathan M. Weinberg


Our interest in this paper is to drive a wedge of contention between two different programs that fall under the umbrella of “experimental philosophy”. In particular, we argue that experimental philosophy’s “negative program” presents almost as significant a challenge to its “positive program” as it does to more traditional analytic philosophy.


  1. Adams, F., and A. Steadman. 2004a. Intentional action in ordinary language: core concept or pragmatic understanding? Analysis 64: 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, F., and A. Steadman. 2004b. Intentional action and moral considerations: still pragmatic. Analysis 64: 268–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander, J., and J. Weinberg. 2007. Analytic epistemology and experimental philosophy. Philosophy Compass 2: 56–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bloom, P., and T.P. German. 2000. Two reasons to abandon the false belief task as a test of theory of mind. Cognition 77: B25–B31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Christensen, D. 2007. Epistemology of disagreement: the good news. The Philosophical Review 116: 187–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cummins, R. 1998. Reflection on reflective equilibrium. In Rethinking intuition, ed. M. DePaul, and W. Ramsey, 113–128. Lantham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  7. Dwyer, S. 1999. Moral competence. In Philosophy and linguistics, ed. K. Murasugi, and R. Stanton, 169–190. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  8. Elga, A. 2006. Reflection and disagreement. Nous 41: 478–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Feldman, R. 2006. Epistemological puzzles about disagreement. In Epistemology futures, ed. S. Heatherington. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Feldman, R., and F. Warfield. 2007. Disagreement. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Gelman, S. 2003. The essential child: Origins of essentialism in everyday thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Glasgow, J. 2008. On the methodology of the race debate: conceptual analysis and racial discourse. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 76: 333–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goldman, A., and J. Pust. 1998. Philosophical theory and intuitional evidence. In Rethinking intuition, ed. M. DePaul, and W. Ramsey, 179–200. Lantham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  14. Greene, J. 2003. From neural “is” to moral “ought”: what are the moral implications of neuroscientific moral psychology? Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 847–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Greene, J., R. Sommerville, L. Nystrom, J. Darley, and J. Cohen. 2001. An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment. Science 293: 2105–2108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harman, G. 1999. Moral philosophy and linguistics. In Proceedings of the 20th World Congress of Philosophy, vol. I: Ethics, ed. K. Brinkmann, 107–115. Bowling Green: Philosophy Documentation Center.Google Scholar
  17. Hauser, M., L. Young, and F. Cushman. 2007. Reviving rawls’ linguistic analogy: Operative principles and the causal structure of moral actions. In Moral psychology, volume 1: The evolution of morality: Adaptations and innateness, ed. W. Sinnott-Armstrong. Cambridge: MIT (Bradford Books).Google Scholar
  18. Jackson, F. 1998. From metaphysics to ethics: A defense of conceptual analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Johnson, K. 2008. An overview of lexical semantics. Philosophy Compass 3: 119–134.Google Scholar
  20. Kauppinen, A. 2007. The rise and fall of experimental philosophy. Philosophical Explorations 10: 95–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kelly, T. 2005. The epistemic significance of disagreement. In Oxford studies in epistemology, vol. 1, ed. J. Hawthorne, and T. Gendler Szabo, 167–196. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Kelly, T. 2007. Peer Disagreements and Higher Order Evidence. In Disagreement, ed. R. Feldman, and T. Warfield. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Kelly, T. 2008. Disagreement, dogmatism, and belief polarization. The Journal of Philosophy 105: 611–633.Google Scholar
  24. Knobe, J. 2003a. Intentional action and side effects in ordinary language. Analysis 63: 190–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Knobe, J. 2003b. Intentional action in folk psychology: an experimental investigation. Philosophical Psychology 16: 309–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Knobe, J. 2004. Intention, intentional action and moral considerations. Analysis 64: 181–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Knobe, J. 2007a. Experimental philosophy and philosophical significance. Philosophical Explorations 10: 119–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Knobe, J. 2007b. Reason explanation in folk psychology. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 31: 90–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lewis, D. 1970. How to define theoretical terms. Journal of Philosophy 67: 426–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lewis, D. 1972. Psychophysical and theoretical identifications. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 50: 249–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Machery, E. 2008. The folk concept of intentional action: philosophical and psychological issues. Mind & Language 23: 165–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Machery, E. 2009. Doing without concepts. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Machery, E., S. Lindquist, and P. Griffiths. 2009. The vernacular concept of innateness. Mind & Language 24: 605–630.Google Scholar
  34. Machery, E., R. Mallon, S. Nichols, and S. Stich. 2004. Semantics, Cross-cultural style. Cognition 92: B1–B12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mallon, R. 2007. Reviving rawls inside and out. In Psychology, volume 2: The cognitive science of morality: Intuition and diversity, ed. W. Sinnott-Armstrong, 145–155. Cambridge: MIT (Bradford Books).Google Scholar
  36. Mallon, R., and S. Nichols. in press. Moral reasoning, moral rules, and moral dilemmas. In The Oxford handbook of moral psychology, ed. J. Doris, S. Nichols, and S. Stich. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Mallon, R., E. Machery, S. Nichols, and S. Stich. 2009. Against arguments from reference. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79: 332–356.Google Scholar
  38. Marcus, M. 1980. Theory of syntactic recognition for natural languages. Cambridge: MIT.Google Scholar
  39. Marr, D. 1982. Vision. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  40. Mikhail, J. 2000. Rawls’ linguistic analogy: A study of the ‘generative grammar’ model of moral theory described by John Rawls in ‘A theory of justice’. Ph.D. Thesis. Cornell University, Ithaca.Google Scholar
  41. Nadelhoffer, T. 2004a. On praise, side effects, and folk ascriptions of intentionality. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 24: 196–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nadelhoffer, T. 2004b. Blame, badness, and intentional action: a reply to Knobe and Mendlow. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 24: 259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nadelhoffer, T., and E. Nahmias. 2007. The past and future of experimental philosophy. Philosophical Explorations 10: 123–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nahmias, E., S. Morris, T. Nadelhoffer, and J. Turner. 2005. Surveying freedom: folk intuitions about free will and moral responsibility. Philosophical Psychology 18: 561–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nahmias, E., S. Morris, T. Nadelhoffer, and J. Turner. 2006. Is incompatibilism intuitive? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73: 28–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nichols, S. 2002. On the genealogy of norms: a case for the role of emotion in cultural evolution. Philosophy of Science 69: 234–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nichols, S. 2006. Imaginative blocks and impossibility: An essay in modal psychology. In The architecture of the imagination, ed. S. Nichols, 237–255. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nichols, S., S. Stich, and J. Weinberg. 2003. Metaskepticism: Meditations in ethno-epistemology. In The skeptics: Contemporary debates, ed. S. Luper, 227–247. Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  49. Nichols, S., and R. Mallon. 2006. Moral rules and moral dilemmas. Cognition 100: 530–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nichols, S., and J. Knobe. 2007. Moral responsibility and determinism: the cognitive science of folk intuitions. Nous 41: 663–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nichols, S., and J. Ulatowski. 2007. Intuitions and individual differences: the Knobe effect revisited. Mind and Language 22: 346–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Petrinovich, L., and P. O’Neill. 1996. Influence of wording and framing effects on moral intuitions. Ethology and Sociobiology 17: 145–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Petrinovich, L., P. O’Neill, and M. Jorgensen. 1993. An empirical study of moral intuitions: toward an evolutionary ethics. Journal of Personality and Social Research 64: 467–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Quine, W. 1951. Two dogmas of empiricism. Philosophical Review 60: 20–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Scholl, B. 2007. Object persistence in philosophy and psychology. Mind & Language 22: 563–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Scholl, B., and A. Leslie. 2003. Minds, modules, and meta-analysis. Child Development 72: 696–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schwitzgebel, E. in press. Do ethicists steal more books. Philosophical Psychology.Google Scholar
  58. Sperber, D. 1994. The modularity of thought and the epidemiology of representation. In Mapping the mind, ed. L. Hirchfeld, and S. Gelman, 39–67. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Stanovich, K., and R. West. 2000. Individual differences in reasoning: implications for the rationality debate. Behavior and Brain Sciences 23: 645–726.Google Scholar
  60. Stotz, K., and P. Griffiths. 2004. Genes: philosophical analyses put to the test. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 26: 5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Surian, L., and A. Leslie. 1999. Competence and performance in false belief understanding: A comparison of autistic and normal 3-year-old children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 17: 141–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Swain, S., J. Alexander, and J. Weinberg. 2008. The instability of philosophical intuitions: running hot and cold on truetemp. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 76: 138–155.Google Scholar
  63. Ulatowski, J. 2008. How many theories of act individuation are there? Ph.D. Thesis. University of Utah, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  64. Uhlmann, E., D. Pizzaro, D. Tannenbaum, and P. Ditto. 2009. The motivated use of moral principles. Judgment and Decision Making 4: 476–491.Google Scholar
  65. Weinberg, J. 2007. How to challenge intuitions empirically without risking skepticism. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 31: 318–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Weinberg, J., S. Nichols, and S. Stich. 2001. Normativity and epistemic intuitions. Philosophical Topics 29: 429–460.Google Scholar
  67. White, R. 2005. Epistemic permissiveness. Philosophical Perspectives 19: 445–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Williamson, T. 2004. Philosophical ‘intuitions’ and scepticism about judgments. Dialectica 58: 109–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Williamson, T. 2005. Armchair philosophy, metaphysical modality and counterfactual thinking. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 105: 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Williamson, T. 2007. The philosophy of philosophy. Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wittgenstein, L. 1953. Philosophical investigations. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joshua Alexander
    • 1
  • Ronald Mallon
    • 2
  • Jonathan M. Weinberg
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophySiena CollegeLoudonvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of PhilosophyIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations