AMS Review

, Volume 6, Issue 1–2, pp 1–16 | Cite as

Reflections on customer-based brand equity: perspectives, progress, and priorities

  • Kevin Lane KellerEmail author


“Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity,” published in the Journal of Marketing in 1993, was one of the early thought pieces and review papers on branding in the field. Written to be a comprehensive bridge between the theory and practice of branding, it has received a large number of citations and several awards through the years. Here, I look back at that article and provide some perspective as to how it was developed, highlighting some of its main contributions. I also outline some of my subsequent related branding research, as well as that of others. Finally, I consider some future research priorities in branding, putting emphasis on the online and digital developments that have occurred since the publication of the article.


Brands Branding Brand equity Customer-based brand equity Brand management 


  1. Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(3), 347–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aaker, D. A., & Keller, K. L. (1990). Consumer evaluations of brand extensions. Journal of Marketing, 54(1), 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aaker, J. L., Fournier, S., & Brasel, S. A. (2004). When good brands do bad. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aggrawal, P., & McGill, A. L. (2012). When brands seem human, do humans act like brands? automatic behavioral priming effects of brand anthropomorphism. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(2), 307–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahluwalia, R. (2008). How far can a brand stretch? understanding the role of self-construal. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(3), 337–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahluwalia, R., & Gurhan-Canli, Z. (2000). The effects of extensions on the family brand name: an accessibility-diagnosticity perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(3), 371–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barone, M. J., Miniard, P. W., & Romeo, J. B. (2000). The influence of positive mood on brand extension evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research, 26(4), 386–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Batra, R., Ahuvia, A., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2012). Brand love. Journal of Marketing, 76(2), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bellezza, S., & Keinan, A. (2014). Brand tourists: how non-core users enhance the brand image by eliciting pride. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(2), 397–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bettman, J. R. (1979). Memory factors in consumer choice: a review. Journal of Marketing, 43(2), 37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bridges, S., Keller, K. L., & Sood, S. (2000). Explanatory links and the perceived fit of brand extensions: the role of dominant parent brand associations and communication strategies. Journal of Advertising, 29(4), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caldieraro, F., Ling-Jing, K., & Cunha, M. (2015). Harmful upward line extensions: can the launch of premium products result in competitive disadvantages? Journal of Marketing, 79(6), 50–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chang, C.-C., Lin, B.-C., & Chang, S.-S. (2011). The relative advantages of benefit overlap versus category similarity in brand extension evaluation: the moderating role of self-regulatory focus. Marketing Letters, 22(4), 391–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheng, S. Y. Y., White, T. B., & Chaplin, L. N. (2012). The effects of self-brand connections on responses to brand failure: a new look at the consumer-brand relationship. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(2), 280–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chernev, A., Hamilton, R., & Gal, D. (2011). Competing for consumer identity: limits to self-expression and the perils of lifestyle branding. Journal of Marketing, 75(3), 66–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cutright, K. M., Bettman, J. R., & Fitzsimons, G. J. (2013). Putting brands in their place: how a lack of control keeps brands contained. Journal of Marketing Research, 50(3), 365–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Czellar, S. (2003). Consumer attitude toward brand extensions: an integrative model and research propositions. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20(1), 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Desai, K. K., & Keller, K. L. (2002). The effects of ingredient branding strategies on host brand extendibility. Journal of Marketing, 66(1), 73–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dommer, S. L., Swaminathan, V., & Ahluwalia, R. (2013). Using differentiated brands to deflect exclusion and protect inclusion: the moderating role of self-esteem on attachment to differentiated brands. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(4), 657–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dunn, L., & Hoegg, J. (2014). The impact of fear on emotional brand attachment. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(1), 152–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Edell, J. A., & Keller, K. L. (1989). The information processing of coordinated media campaigns. Journal of Marketing Research, 26(2), 149–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Edell, J. A., & Keller, K. L. (1999). Analyzing media interactions: the effects of coordinated TV-print advertising campaigns. Marketing Science Institute, Report No. 99–120.Google Scholar
  23. Escalas, J. E. (1996). Narrative processing: building consumer connections to brands to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14(1-2), 168–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fedorikhin, A., Park, C. W., & Thomson, M. (2008). Beyond fit and attitude: the effect of emotional attachment on consumer responses to brand extensions. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 18(4), 281–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ferraro, R., Kirmani, A., & Matherly, T. (2013). Look at me! look at me! conspicuous brand usage, self-brand connection, and dilution. Journal of Marketing Research, 50(4), 477–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Forehand, M. R., & Keller, K. L. (1996). Initial retrieval difficulty and subsequent recall in an advertising setting. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 5(4), 299–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gurhan-Canli, Z., & Maheswaran, D. (1998). The effects of extensions on brand name dilution and enhancement. Journal of Marketing Research, 35(4), 464–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hamilton, R., & Chernev, A. (2010). The impact of product line extensions and consumer goals on the formation of price image. Journal of Marketing Research, 47(1), 51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Heath, T. B., DelVecchio, D., & McCarthy, M. S. (2011). The asymmetric effects of extending brands to lower and higher quality. Journal of Marketing, 75(4), 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Higgins, E. T. (1997). Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52(12), 1280–1300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Higgins, E. T. (2002). How self-regulation creates distinct values: the case of promotion and prevention decision making. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12(3), 177–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoegg, J., Alba, J. W., & Dahl, D. W. (2010). The good, the bad, and the ugly: aesthetic influence on information processing. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20(4), 419–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. John, D. R., Loken, B., & Joiner, C. (1998). The negative impact of extensions: can flagship products be diluted? Journal of Marketing, 62(1), 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. John, D. R., Loken, B., Kim, K., & Monga, S. B. (2006). Brand concept maps: a methodology for identifying brand association networks. Journal of Marketing Research, Special Issue on Practitioner-Academic Collaborative Research, 43(4), 549–563.Google Scholar
  36. Keller, K. L. (1987). Memory factors in advertising: the effect of advertising retrieval cues on brand evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(3), 316–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Keller, K. L. (1991a). Cue compatibility and framing in advertising. Journal of Marketing Research, 28(1), 42–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Keller, K. L. (1991b). Memory and evaluations in competitive advertising environments. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(4), 463–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Keller, K. L. (2001). Building customer-based brand equity: a blueprint for creating strong brands. Marketing Management, 10(2), 15–19.Google Scholar
  41. Keller, K. L. (2003). Brand synthesis: the multi-dimensionality of brand knowledge. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(4), 595–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Keller, K. L. (2013). Strategic brand management (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  43. Keller, K. L., & Aaker, D. A. (1992). The effects of sequential introduction of brand extensions. Journal of Marketing Research, 29(1), 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Keller, K. L., & Aaker, D. A. (1998). The impact of corporate marketing on a company’s brand extensions. Corporate Reputation Review, 1(4), 356–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Keller, K. L., & Lehmann, D. (2003). How do brands create value. Marketing Management, 3, 27–31.Google Scholar
  46. Keller, K. L., & Lehmann, D. (2006). Brands and branding: research findings and future priorities. Marketing Science, 25(6), 740–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Keller, K. L., & Sood, S. (2003). Brand equity dilution. MIT Sloan Management Review, 45(1), 12–15.Google Scholar
  48. Keller, K. L., Heckler, S., & Houston, M. J. (1998). The effects of brand name suggestiveness on advertising recall. Journal of Marketing, 62(1), 48–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Keller, K. L., Sternthal, B., & Tybout, A. (2002). Three questions you need to ask about your brand. Harvard Business Review, 80(9), 80–89.Google Scholar
  50. Kim, H., & John, D. R. (2008). Consumer response to brand extensions: construal level as a moderator of the importance of perceived fit. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 18(2), 116–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kirmani, A., Sood, S., & Bridges, S. (1999). The ownership effect in consumer responses to brand line stretches. Journal of Marketing, 63(1), 88–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Krishna, A. (2013). Customer sense: How the 5 senses influence buying behavior. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee, A. Y., Aaker, J. L., & Gardner, W. L. (2000). The pleasures and pains of distinct self-construals: the role of interdependence in regulatory focus. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(6), 1122–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lee, A. Y., Keller, P. A., & Sternthal, B. (2010). Value from regulatory construal fit. Journal of Consumer Research, 36(2), 735–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lei, J., Dawar, N., & Lemmink, J. (2008). Negative spillover in brand portfolios: exploring the antecedents of asymmetric effects. Journal of Marketing, 72(3), 111–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Loken, B., & John, D. R. (1993). Diluting brand beliefs — when do brand extensions have a negative impact? Journal of Marketing, 57(3), 71–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mao, H., & Krishnan, H. S. (2006). Effects of prototype and exemplar fit on brand extension evaluations: a two-process contingency model. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(1), 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mathur, P., Jain, S. P., & Maheswaran, D. (2012). Consumers’ implicit theories about personality influence their brand personality judgments. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(4), 545–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Meyvis, T., Goldsmith, K., & Dhar, R. (2012). The importance of the context in brand extension: how pictures and comparisons shift consumers’ focus from fit to quality. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(2), 206–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Milberg, S. J., Park, C. W., & McCarthy, M. S. (1997). Managing negative feedback effects associated with brand extensions: the impact of alternative branding strategies. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 6(2), 119–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Milberg, S. J., Sinn, F., & Goodstein, R. C. (2010). Consumer reactions to brand extensions in a competitive context: does fit still matter? Journal of Consumer Research, 37(3), 543–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Monga, A. B., & Guhan-Canli, Z. (2012). The influence of mating mind-sets on brand extension evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(4), 581–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Monga, A. B., & John, D. R. (2007). Cultural differences in brand extension evaluation: the influence of analytic versus holistic thinking. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(4), 529–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Monga, A. B., & John, D. R. (2010). What makes brands elastic? the influence of brand concept and styles of thinking on brand extension evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research, 74(3), 80–92.Google Scholar
  65. Morrin, M. (1999). The impact of brand extensions on parent brand memory structures and retrieval processes. Journal of Marketing Research, 36(4), 517–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Muthukrishnan, A. V., & Weitz, B. A. (1990). Role of product knowledge in brand extensions. In R. H. Holman & M. R. Solomon (Eds.), Advances in consumer research (Vol. 18, pp. 407–413). Provo: Association for Consumer Research.Google Scholar
  67. Ng, S. (2010). Cultural orientation and brand dilution: impact of motivation level and extension typicality. Journal of Marketing Research, 47(1), 186–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ng, S., & Houston, M. (2006). Exemplars or beliefs? the impact of self-view on the nature and relative influence of brand associations. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 519–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Oakley, J. L., Duhachek, A., Balachander, S., & Sriram, S. (2008). Order of entry and the moderating role of comparison brands in extension evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(5), 706–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pauwels, K. (2014). It’s not the size of the data: it’s how you use it: Smarter marketing with dashboard and analytics. New York: American Management Association (AMACOM).Google Scholar
  71. Pham, M. T., Geuens, M., & Pelsmaker, P. D. (2013). The influence of ad-evoked feelings on brand evaluations: empirical generalizations from consumer responses to more than 1,000 tv commercials. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 30(4), 383–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Puligadda, S., Ross, W. T., Jr., & Grewal, R. (2012). Individual differences in brand schematicity. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(1), 115–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pullig, C., Simmons, C. J., & Netemeyer, R. G. (2006). Brand dilution: when do new brands hurt existing brands? Journal of Marketing, 70(2), 52–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rahinel, R., & Redden, J. P. (2013). Brands as product coordinators: matching brands make joint consumption experiences more enjoyable. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(6), 1290–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schmitt, B. (2012). The consumer psychology of brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(1), 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Shine, B. C., Park, J., & Wyer, R. S., Jr. (2007). Brand synergy effects in multiple brand extensions. Journal of Marketing Research, 44(4), 663–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sood, S., & Keller, K. L. (2012). The effects of brand name structure on brand extension evaluations and parent brand dilution. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(3), 373–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Spiggle, S., Nguyen, H. T., & Caravella, M. (2012). More than fit: brand extension authenticity. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(6), 967–983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Swaminathan, V., Page, K., & Gurhan-Canli, Z. (2007). My brand or our brand: individual-and group-based brand relationships and self-construal effects on brand evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(2), 248–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Swaminathan, V., Stilley, K., & Ahluwalia, R. (2009). When brand personality matters: the moderating role of attachment styles. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(6), 985–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Swaminathan, V., Gürhan-Canli, Z., Kubat, U., & Hayran, C. (2015). How, when, and why do attribute-complementary versus attribute-similar cobrands affect brand evaluations: a concept combination perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 42(1), 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Thomson, M., MacInnis, D. J., & Park, C. W. (2005). The ties that bind: measuring the strength of consumers’ emotional attachments to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(1), 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Thomson, M., Whelan, J., & Johnson, A. R. (2012). Why brands should fear fearful consumers: how attachment style predicts retaliation. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(2), 289–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Torelli, C. J., & Ahluwalia, R. (2012). Extending culturally symbolic brands: a blessing or curse? Journal of Consumer Research, 38(5), 933–947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Torelli, C. J., Özsomer, A., Carvalho, S. W., Keh, H. T., & Maehle, N. (2012). Brand concepts as representations of human values: do cultural congruity and compatibility between values matter? Journal of Marketing, 76(4), 92–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Verrochi, C., & Williams, N. P. (2013). Feeling like myself: emotion profiles and social identity. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(2), 203–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Völckner, F., & Sattler, H. (2006). Drivers of brand extension success. Journal of Marketing, 70(2), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yadav, M. S., & Pavlou, P. A. (2014). Marketing in computer-mediated environments: research synthesis and new directions. Journal of Marketing, 78(1), 20–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yeo, J., & Park, J. (2006). Effects of parent-extension similarity and self regulatory focus on evaluations of brand extensions. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 16(3), 272–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yeung, C. W. M., & Wyer, R. S. (2005). Does loving a brand mean loving its products? the role of brand-elicited affect in brand extension evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 43(4), 495–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yorkston, E. A., Nunes, J. C., & Matta, S. (2010). The malleable brand: the role of implicit theories in evaluating brand extensions. Journal of Marketing, 74(1), 80–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zhang, S., & Sood, S. (2002). ‘Deep’ and ‘surface’ cues: brand extension evaluations by children and adults. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(1), 129–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of Marketing Science 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tuck School of BusinessDartmouth CollegeHanoverUSA

Personalised recommendations