Remediating food deserts, food swamps, and food brownfields: helping the poor access nutritious, safe, and affordable food
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Solutions to food insecurity need to address not only the lack of physical availability of food, as currently suggested by the literature, but also affordability, quality, and safety to be truly comprehensive. Marketing ensures that all consumers have equal access to products and services and that all relevant information is available so consumers can make educated consumption choices. This paper develops an urban food security model to help diagnose urban food systems and their shortcomings. Current understandings of food deserts and food swamps are clarified. The concept of food brownfields, places where conditions lead to above-average safety risks associated with food consumption, is introduced. Conditions in food-insecure communities are explored and contrasted to those in food-secure areas. These disparities inform our suggestions on how to provide innovative mechanisms to achieve true food security in poor urban areas. Policy-driven recommendations and future venues of research are subsequently advanced.
KeywordsFood desert Food swamp Food brownfield Food security Poor Food safety Urban Justice
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