Advertisement

Wetlands

pp 1–12 | Cite as

The Influence of Personality on Small Fish Migration and Dispersal in the Everglades

  • J. Matthew HochEmail author
  • Alexandra Cabanelas Bermudez
  • Olivia S. Coury
  • Andrew Scott Donahou
  • Chelsea N. Jeffers
  • Michele LaMartina
  • Deoraj Ramsaran
  • Stacey Spadafore
General Wetland Science

Abstract

The Everglades is characterized by seasonal hydrologic variation that expands and reduces aquatic habitats. Fish like Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), Bluefin Killifish (Lucania goodei), Golden Topminnow (Fundulus chrysotus) and Sailfin Molly (Poecilia latipinna) annually move to and from temporary wetlands. Field studies have indicated cyclic changes in activity and directionality for some fishes moving across the landscape and that rates vary among species. Laboratory experiments were performed to test the hypotheses that personality traits related to migration, including boldness, exploration and activity vary among fishes from locations with different hydrology and during periods of differing hydrology. Strong dispersers like Eastern Mosquitofish and Golden Topminnow were bolder when water levels were changing and were superior, as explorers of unknown environments, to species whose populations take longer to recover in seasonal wetlands. Poorer dispersers like Bluefin Killifish and Sailfin Molly lacked variation in personality traits related to seasonal dispersal. The results confirm prior studies showing seasonally changing activity levels by migrating fishes and demonstrate that seasonal personality changes are partially responsible. Understanding how and why fish move into and out of temporary wetlands is critical to the management of short-hydroperiod water levels to maintain an accessible food supply for wading birds.

Keywords

Latency time Personality Everglades Dispersal Migration Boldness 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Joel Trexler and Christopher Blanar provided input that contributed to this work. T.J. Wilkins, Emily Harrington, Jessica Toledo, Daryl Logan, Laura White, Rachel Tonia and Megan Bruce provided assistance in the field and laboratory. Emily Schmitt Lavin, Pilar Fernandino, the NSU Biology Department and the Parker Laboratory Staff helped with research space issues. The project was supported by a President’s Faculty Research and Development Grant from Nova Southeastern University’s Office of the President. All work was done under permits from the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (S-14-12, S-15-07, S-16-03 and S-17-04) and Nova Southeastern University’s IACUC and followed accepted standards for humane use of fish in research (Use of Fishes in Research Committee) 2014. The authors acknowledge the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) project and the US Geological Survey for providing the depth data for the purpose of this research.

Supplementary material

13157_2019_1147_MOESM1_ESM.docx (40 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 40 kb)

References

  1. Abtew W, Trimble P (2010) El Niño–southern oscillation link to South Florida hydrology and water management applications. Water Resources Management 24(15):4255–4271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernhardt CE, Willard DA (2009) Response of the Everglades ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management. Ecological Applications 19(7):1723–1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biro PA, Stamps JA (2008) Are animal personality traits linked to life-history productivity? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23(7):361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bolnick DI, Svanbäck R, Fordyce JA, Yang LH, Davis JM, Hulsey CD, Forister ML (2002) The ecology of individuals: incidence and implications of individual specialization. The American Naturalist 161(1):1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brodersen J, Nilsson PA, Chapman BB, Skov C, Hansson LA, Brönmark C (2011) Variable individual consistency in timing and destination of winter migrating fish. Biology Letters 8(1):21–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown KL (1985) Demographic and genetic characteristics of dispersal in the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Pisces: Poeciliidae). Copeia 1985(3):597–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown KL (1987) Colonization by mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) of a Great Plains river basin. Copeia 1987(2):336–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chapman BB, Hulthén K, Blomqvist DR, Hansson LA, Nilsson JÅ, Brodersen J, Nilsson PA, Skov C, Brönmark C (2011) To boldly go: individual differences in boldness influence migratory tendency. Ecology Letters 14(9):871–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chapman BB, Hulthén K, Brodersen J, Nilsson PA, Skov C, Hansson LA, Brönmark C (2012) Partial migration in fishes: causes and consequences. Journal of Fish Biology 81(2):456–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Childers DL, Boyer JN, Davis SE, Madden CJ, Rudnick DT, Sklar FH (2006) Relating precipitation and water management to nutrient concentrations in the oligotrophic “upside-down” estuaries of the Florida Everglades. Limnology and Oceanography 51(1 II):602–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cote J, Fogarty S, Weinersmith K, Brodin T, and Sih A (2010a) Personality traits and dispersal tendency in the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20092128Google Scholar
  12. Cote J, Fogarty S, Brodin T, Weinersmith K, & Sih A (2010b) Personality-dependent dispersal in the invasive mosquitofish: group composition matters. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20101892Google Scholar
  13. Cucherousset J, Paillisson JM, Carpentier A, Chapman LJ (2007) Fish emigration from temporary wetlands during drought: the role of physiological tolerance. Fundamental and Applied Limnology/Archiv für Hydrobiologie 168(2):169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davis JH (1943) The natural features of southern Florida. Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 25:1–311Google Scholar
  15. Davis SM, Gunderson LH, Park WA, Richardson JR, Mattson JE (1994) Landscape dimension, composition, and function in a changing Everglades ecosystem. In: Davis S, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: The Ecosystem and its Restoration. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 419–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeAngelis DL, Loftus WF, Trexler JC, Ulanowicz RE (1997) Modeling fish dynamics and effects of stress in a hydrologically pulsed ecosystem. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 6(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DeAngelis DL, Trexler JC, Cosner C, Obaza A, Jopp F (2010) Fish population dynamics in a seasonally varying wetland. Ecological Modelling 221(8):1131–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dingemanse NJ, Wolf M (2010) Recent models for adaptive personality differences: a review. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 365(1560):3947–3958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dingemanse NJ, Both C, Drent PJ, Tinbergen JM (2004) Fitness consequences of avian personalities in a fluctuating environment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 271(1541):847–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duever MJ, Meeder JF, Meeder LC, McCollom JM (1994) The climate of south Florida and its role in shaping the Everglades ecosystem. In: Davis S, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: The Ecosystem and its Restoration. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 225–248Google Scholar
  21. Forseth T, Nesje TF, Jonsson B, Hårsaker K (1999) Juvenile migration in brown trout: a consequence of energetic state. Journal of Animal Ecology 68(4):783–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fox GA (2001) Failure-time analysis: Data Analysis of Ecological Experiments. In: Scheiner SM, Gurevitch J (eds) Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 235–266Google Scholar
  23. Frederick P, Gawlik DE, Ogden JC, Cook MI, Lusk M (2009) The white Ibis and wood stork as indicators for restoration of the Everglades ecosystem. Ecological Indicators 9(6):S83–S95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gawlik DE (2002) The effects of prey availability on the numerical response of wading birds. Ecological Monographs 72(3):329–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goss CW, Loftus WF, Trexler JC (2013) Seasonal fish dispersal in ephemeral wetlands of the Florida Everglades. Wetlands. Wetlands, 34(1):147–157Google Scholar
  26. Goss CW, Loftus WF, Trexler JC (2014) Seasonal fish dispersal in ephemeral wetlands of the Florida Everglades. Wetlands 34(1):147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hoch JM, Sokol ER, Parker AD, Trexler JC (2015) Migration strategies vary in space, time, and among species in the small-fish metacommunity of the Everglades. Copeia 2015(1):157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jopp F, DeAngelis DL, Trexler JC (2010) Modeling seasonal dynamics of small fish cohorts in fluctuating freshwater marsh landscapes. Landscape Ecology 25(7):1041–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jordan F, Coyne S, Trexler JC (1997) Sampling fishes in vegetated habitats: effects of habitat structure on sampling characteristics of the 1-m2 throw trap. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126(6):1012–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kobza RM, Trexler JC, Loftus WF, Perry SA (2004) Community structure of fishes inhabiting aquatic refuges in a threatened karst wetland and its implications for ecosystem management. Biological Conservation 116(2):153–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kushlan JA (1976) Environmental stability and fish community diversity. Ecology 57(4):821–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kushlan JA (1986) Responses of wading birds to seasonally fluctuating water levels: strategies and their limits. Colonial Waterbirds 9(1986):155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Light SS, Dineen JW (1994) Water control in the Everglades: a historical perspective. In: Davis S, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: The Ecosystem and its Restoration. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 47–84Google Scholar
  34. Liu Z, Volin J, Owen D, Pearlstine L, Allen J, Mazzotti F, Higer A (2009) Validation and ecosystem applications of the EDEN water-surface model for the Florida Everglades. Ecohydrology 2(2):182–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Loftus WF, Eklund AM (1994) Long-term dynamics of an Everglades small-fish assemblage. In: Davis S, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 461–483Google Scholar
  36. Maltby E, Dugan PJ (1994) Wetland ecosystem protection, management, and restoration: an international perspective. In: Davis S, Ogden JC (eds) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 29–46Google Scholar
  37. National Research Council (2008) Progress toward restoring the Everglades: the second biennial Review-2008. National Academies PressGoogle Scholar
  38. Olsson IC, Greenberg LA, Bergman E, Wysujack K (2006) Environmentally induced migration: the importance of food. Ecology Letters 9(6):645–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Parkos IIIJJ, Ruetz IIICR, Trexler JC (2011) Disturbance regime and limits on benefits of refuge use for fishes in a fluctuating hydroscape. Oikos 120(10):1519–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pearlstine LG, Pearlstine EV, Aumen NG (2010) A review of the ecological consequences and management implications of climate change for the Everglades. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29(4):1510–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pierce RL, Gawlik DE (2010) Wading bird foraging habitat selection in the Florida Everglades. Waterbirds 33(4):494–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pyke GH (2005) A review of the biology of Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 15(4):339–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rasband W S (2016) ImageJ (computer software) U. S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, retrieved from https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/. Accessed 10 Oct 2017
  44. Réale D, Reader SM, Sol D, McDougall PT, Dingemanse NJ (2007) Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution. Biological Reviews 82(2):291–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rehage JS, Sih A (2004) Dispersal behavior, boldness, and the link to invasiveness: a comparison of four Gambusia species. Biological Invasions 6:379–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ruetz IIICR, Trexler JC, Jordan F, Loftus WF, Perry SA (2005) Population dynamics of wetland fishes: Spatio-temporal patterns synchronized by hydrological disturbance? The Journal of Animal Ecology 74(2):322–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. SAS Insititute (2012) SAS 9.4. SAS Institue Inc, Cary, NC, USAGoogle Scholar
  48. Sklar FH, Chimney MJ, Newman S, McCormick P, Gawlik D, Miao S, McVoy C, Said W, Newman J, Coronado C, Crozier G (2005) The ecological–societal underpinnings of Everglades restoration. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3(3):161–169Google Scholar
  49. Skov C, Chapman BB, Baktoft H, Brodersen J, Brönmark C, Hansson LA, Hulthén K, Nilsson PA (2013) Migration confers survival benefits against avian predators for partially migratory freshwater fish. Biology Letters 9(2):20121178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sokol ER, Hoch JM, Gaiser E, Trexler JC (2014) Metacommunity structure along resource and disturbance gradients in Everglades wetlands. Wetlands 34(1):135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stoneman Douglas M (1947) The Everglades: river of grass. Rinehart, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. Stuurman N (2008) MTrack2 (Computer software; Plugin for ImageJ) Retrieved from: https://valelab4.ucsf.edu/~nstuurman/IJplugins/MTrack2.html. Accessed 10 Oct 2017
  53. Trexler JC, Goss CW (2009) Aquatic fauna as indicators for Everglades restoration: applying dynamic targets in assessments. Ecological Indicators 9(6):S108–S119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Trexler JC, Tempe RC, Travis J (1994) Size-selective predation of sailfin mollies by two species of heron. Oikos 69(2):250–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Trexler JC, Loftus WF, Jordan F, Chick JH, Kandl KL, McElroy TC, Bass OL Jr (2002) Ecological scale and its implications for freshwater fishes in the Florida Everglades. In: Porter JW, Porter KG (eds) The Everglades, Florida bay, and coral reefs of the Florida keys: an ecosystem sourcebook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 153–181Google Scholar
  56. Trexler JC, Loftus WF, Perry S (2005) Disturbance frequency and community structure in a twenty-five year intervention study. Oecologia 145(1):140–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Use of Fishes in Research Committee (joint committee of the American Fisheries Society, the American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists, and the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists) (2014) Guidelines for the use of fishes in research. In: American fisheries society. Bethesda, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  58. Wolf M, Weissing FJ (2010) An explanatory framework for adaptive personality differences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 365(1560):3959–3968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wolf M, van Doorn GS, Weissing FJ (2008) Evolutionary emergence of responsive and unresponsive personalities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(41):15825–15830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yurek S, DeAngelis DL, Trexler JC, Jopp F, Donalson DD (2013) Simulating mechanisms for dispersal, production and stranding of small forage fish in temporary wetland habitats. Ecological Modelling 250:391–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yurek S, DeAngelis DL, Trexler JC, Klassen JA, Larsen LG (2016) Persistence and diversity of directional landscape connectivity improves biomass pulsing in simulations of expanding and contracting wetlands. Ecological Complexity 28:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of Wetland Scientists 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Matthew Hoch
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexandra Cabanelas Bermudez
    • 1
  • Olivia S. Coury
    • 1
  • Andrew Scott Donahou
    • 1
  • Chelsea N. Jeffers
    • 1
  • Michele LaMartina
    • 1
  • Deoraj Ramsaran
    • 1
  • Stacey Spadafore
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Marine and Environmental SciencesNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA

Personalised recommendations