, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 509–523 | Cite as

Spatial Dynamics and Structure of Human Disturbed Mangrove Forests in Contrasting Coastal Communities in Eastern Africa

  • Célia da Conceição Felisberto MacamoEmail author
  • Janine Barbara Adams
  • Salomão Olinda Bandeira
  • Hugo Adriano Mabilana
  • Vilma Machava António
Original Research


The spatial dynamics and structure of mangrove forests in peri-urban, rural and rural island settings in Mozambique was investigated to test the hypothesis that peri-urban forests are more impacted. LandSat images from 1991, 2002 and 2013 were analysed for changes in area cover and forest structural data were collected in the field. At the peri-urban site, mangrove cover increased by 22.7%, while at the rural site 23.2% were lost. The small area of the rural island was not assessed, but losses are expected given the high density of stumps. All forests are structurally small, with height and diameter of species varying significantly among sites (p < 0.001). The forest complexity index varied from 1.61 (rural island), to 0.90 (peri-urban) and 0.39 (rural). The communities harvested all diameter classes at the rural island, while class 5.1–8 cm was preferred at the peri-urban and rural sites. The proportion of stumps:live trees were 1:11 (peri-urban site); 1:9 (rural) and 1:4 (rural island). The proportions of regenerating classes were 16:4:1 (peri-urban); 76:16:1 (rural) and 8:1:0 (rural island). This study provided important insights to mangrove forest structure and uses in an understudied region and showed that management plans are required at all sites for sustainable use.


Change detection Mangrove management Western Indian Ocean region Coastal community Peri-urban forest 



This study was conducted within the Sustainable Poverty Alleviation from Coastal Ecosystem Services Project (SPACES) Financed by Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation. Our gratitude to the members of the field team: Dominique D’Emille, Siran Offman, Amisse Abel and Raul Lima.


  1. Adeel Z, Pomeroy R (2002) Assessment and management of mangrove ecosystems in developing countries. Trees 16:235–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen JA, Ewel KC, Jack J (2001) Patterns of natural and anthropogenic disturbance of the mangroves on the Pacific Island of Kosrae. Wetlands Ecology and Management 9:279–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alongi D (2002) Present state and future of the world’s mangrove forests. Environmental Conservation 29:331–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aziz AA, Phinn S, Dargusch P, Omar H, Arjasakusuma S (2015) Assessing the potential applications of Landsat image archive in the ecological monitoring and management of a production mangrove forest in Malaysia. Wetlands Ecology and Management 23:1049–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandeira SO, Balidy H (2016) Limpopo mangrove estuary transformation, rehabilitation and management. In: Diop S, Scheren P, Machiwa JF (eds) Estuaries: a lifeline of ecosystem services in the Western Indian Ocean. Estuaries of the World. Springer, Cham, pp 227–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandeira SO, Macamo CCF, Kairo JG, Amade F, Jidawi N, Paula J (2009) Evaluation of mangrove structure and condition in two trans-boundary areas in the Western Indian Ocean. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19(1):46–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barbosa FMA, Cuambe CC, Bandeira SO (2001) Status and distribution of mangroves in Mozambique. South African Journal of Botany 67:393–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bosire JO, Kaino JJ, Olagoke O, Mwihaki LM, Ogendi GM, Kairo JG, Berger U, Macharia D (2014) Mangroves in peril: unprecedented degradation rates ofperi-urban mangroves in Kenya. Biogeosciences 11:2623–2634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chong PW (1988) Proposed integrated forest management planning and utilization of mangrove resources in the Terraba-Sierpe reserve, Costa Rica, TCP. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  10. Dias J, Dias M (1964) Os Macondes de Moçambique « Aspectos Históricos e Económicos» « Cultura Material». Centro de Estudos de Antropologia cultural, Lisboa 111 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Duke NC, Meynecke JO, Dittmann S, Ellison AM, Anger K, Berger U, Cannicci S, Diele K, Ewel KC, Field CD, Koedam N, Lee SY, Marchand C, Nordhaus I, Dahdouh-Guebas F (2007) A world without mangroves? Science 317:41–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Eslami-Andargoli L, Dale P, Sipe N, Chaseling J (2009) Mangrove expansion and rainfall patterns in Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 85:292–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. FAO (1994) Mangrove forest management guidelines. FAO Forestry Paper 117. FAO, Rome, pp 320Google Scholar
  14. Fatoyinbo T, Simard M (2013) Height and biomass of mangroves in Africa from ICESat/GLAS and SRTM. International Journal of Remote Sensing 34(2):668–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fatoyinbo T, Simard M, Washington-Allen L, Shugart H (2008) Landscape extent, height, biomass, and carbon estimation of Mozambique’s mangrove forests with Landsat ETM+ and shuttle radar topography mission elevation data. Journal of Geophysical Research 113.
  16. Ferreira MA, Andrade F, Bandeira SO, Cardoso P, Nogueira MR, Paula J (2009a) Analysis of cover change (1995-2005) of Tanzania/Mozambique trans-boundary mangroves using Landsat imagery. Aquatic Conservation 19:38–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferreira M, Andrade F, Cardoso P, Paula J (2009b) Coastal habitat mapping along the Tanzania/Mozambique transboundary area using Landsat 5 TM imagery. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science 8(1):1–13Google Scholar
  18. Giri C, Ochieng E, Tieszen LL, Zhu Z, Loveland T, Masek J, Duke N (2011) Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Global Ecology and Biogeography 20:154–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Giri C, Jorndan L, Abbas S, Murali RM, Qamer FM, Pengra B, Thau D (2015) Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia. Journal of Environmental Management 148:101–111CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hauff RD, Ewel KC, Jack J (2006) Tracking human disturbance in mangroves: estimating harvest rates on a Micronesian Island. Wetlands Ecology and Management 14:95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hogarth P (2015) The biology of mangroves and seagrasses. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hoppe-Speer SCL, Adams JB, Bailey D (2015) Present state of mangrove forests along the Eastern Cape coast, South Africa. Wetlands Ecology and Management 23:371–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jupiter S, Potts DC, Phinn SR, Duke NC (2007) Natural and anthropogenic changes to mangrove distributions in the Pioneer River Estuary (QLD, Australia). Wetlands Ecology and Management 15:51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kairo JG, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Gwada P, Ochieng C, Koedam N (2002) Regeneration status of mangrove forests in Mida Creek, Kenya: a compromisedor secured future? Ambio 31:562–568CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kathiresan K, Bingham BL (2001) The biology of mangroves and mangrove ecosystems. Advances in Marine Biology 40:81–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Macamo C, Balidy H, Bandeira S (2015) Mangrove transformation in the Incomáti estuary, Maputo Bay, Mozambique. WIO. Journal of Marine Science 14:10–21Google Scholar
  27. Macamo C., Bandeira S., Muando S., Abreu D., and Mabilana H. 2016. Mangroves of Mozambique. In: Bosire J. O., Mangora M. M., , Bandeira S., Rajkaran A., Ratsimbazafy R., Appadoo C. and Kairo J. G. (eds.). Mangroves of the Western Indian Ocean: status and management. WIOMSA, Zanzibar Town, pp. 51–73Google Scholar
  28. Mohamed MOS, Neukermans G, Kairo JG, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N (2009) Mangrove forests in a peri-urban setting: the case of Mombasa (Kenya). Wetlands Ecology and Management 17:243–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Okello JA, Schmitz N, Kairo JG, Beeckman H, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N (2013) Self-sustenance potential of peri-urban mangroves: a case of Mtwapa creek Kenya. Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources 2(8):277–289Google Scholar
  30. Paula J, Macamo C, Bandeira S (2014) The mangroves of Maputo Bay. In: Bandeira S, Paula J (eds) The Maputo Bay ecosystem. WIOMSA, Zanzibar Town, pp 109–126Google Scholar
  31. Potere D, Schneider A, Angel S, Civco D (2009) Mapping urban areas on a global scale: which of the eight maps now available is more accurate? International Journal of Remote Sensing 30:6531–6558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rajkaran A, Adams JB (2010) The implications of harvesting on the population structure and sediment characteristics of the mangroves at Mngazana Estuary, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Wetlands Ecology and Management 18:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saintilan N, Wilson NC, Rogers K, Rajkaran A, Krauss K (2014) Mangrove expansion and salt marsh decline at mangrove poleward limits. Global Change Biology 20:147–157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Shapiro AC, Trettin C, Küchly H, Alavinapanah S, Bandeira S (2015) The mangroves of the Zambezi delta: increase in extent observed via satellite from 1994 to 2013. Remote Sensing 7:16504–16518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shunula JP (2001) Public awareness, key to mangrove management and conservation: the case of Zanzibar. Trees 16:209–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stringer C, Trettin C, Zarnoch SJ, Tang W (2015) Carbon stocks of mangroves within the Zambezi River delta Mozambique. Forest Ecology and Management 354:139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Suaréz N, Medina E (2005) Salinity effect on plant growth and leaf demography of the mangrove, Avicennia germinans L. Trees 19:721–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tsuda S, Ajima F (1999) A preliminary study of resprouting ability of some mangrove species after cutting. Tropics 8:221–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of Wetland Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Célia da Conceição Felisberto Macamo
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Janine Barbara Adams
    • 1
    • 3
  • Salomão Olinda Bandeira
    • 2
  • Hugo Adriano Mabilana
    • 2
  • Vilma Machava António
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Botany, Institute for Coastal and Marine ResearchNelson Mandela UniversityPort ElizabethSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of SciencesEduardo Mondlane UniversityMaputoMozambique
  3. 3.Institute of Coastal and Marine ResearchNelson Mandela UniversityPort ElizabethSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations