, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 787–799 | Cite as

Potential Effects of Foundation Species Loss on Wetland Communities: A Case Study of Black Ash Wetlands Threatened by Emerald Ash Borer

  • Melissa B. Youngquist
  • Sue L. Eggert
  • Anthony W. D’Amato
  • Brian J. Palik
  • Robert A. Slesak
Review Article


The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle that causes almost complete mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and Europe. Northern temperate wetlands, where black ash (F. nigra) is a dominant and foundation species, will likely undergo dramatic shifts after EAB invasion. Utilizing published knowledge on amphibian and aquatic invertebrate responses to environmental gradients and the effects of ash loss on forest structure and function, we provide a mechanistic framework to discuss how changes in hydrology, canopy structure, and litter inputs could affect wetland communities. Changes in leaf litter could affect primary production and food web structure in the aquatic environment; overall changes in habitat structure might shift the community to species with longer aquatic stages that prefer open-canopy habitats. Amphibians and aquatic invertebrates serve as linkages between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, understanding how the abundance and functional diversity of these taxa change in response to EAB is necessary to understand whole ecosystem responses. Using a mechanistic framework to formulate hypotheses and predictions is vital for our ability to manage target systems, retain biodiversity, and sustain ecosystem function.


Agrilus planipennis Amphibian Aquatic invertebrate Community ecology Invasive species Fraxinus nigra 



Funding was provided by Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund, The Upper Midwest and Great Lakes Landscape Conservation Cooperative, USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, and The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center. We thank K. Inoue for comments on a previous version of this manuscript. The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© US Government 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melissa B. Youngquist
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sue L. Eggert
    • 2
  • Anthony W. D’Amato
    • 3
  • Brian J. Palik
    • 2
  • Robert A. Slesak
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Forest ResourcesUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.Northern Research StationUSDA Forest ServiceGrand RapidsUSA
  3. 3.Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural ResourcesUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA
  4. 4.Minnesota Forest Resources CouncilSt. PaulUSA

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