Advertisement

Wetlands

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 787–799 | Cite as

Potential Effects of Foundation Species Loss on Wetland Communities: A Case Study of Black Ash Wetlands Threatened by Emerald Ash Borer

  • Melissa B. Youngquist
  • Sue L. Eggert
  • Anthony W. D’Amato
  • Brian J. Palik
  • Robert A. Slesak
Review Article

Abstract

The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle that causes almost complete mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and Europe. Northern temperate wetlands, where black ash (F. nigra) is a dominant and foundation species, will likely undergo dramatic shifts after EAB invasion. Utilizing published knowledge on amphibian and aquatic invertebrate responses to environmental gradients and the effects of ash loss on forest structure and function, we provide a mechanistic framework to discuss how changes in hydrology, canopy structure, and litter inputs could affect wetland communities. Changes in leaf litter could affect primary production and food web structure in the aquatic environment; overall changes in habitat structure might shift the community to species with longer aquatic stages that prefer open-canopy habitats. Amphibians and aquatic invertebrates serve as linkages between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, understanding how the abundance and functional diversity of these taxa change in response to EAB is necessary to understand whole ecosystem responses. Using a mechanistic framework to formulate hypotheses and predictions is vital for our ability to manage target systems, retain biodiversity, and sustain ecosystem function.

Keywords

Agrilus planipennis Amphibian Aquatic invertebrate Community ecology Invasive species Fraxinus nigra 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Funding was provided by Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund, The Upper Midwest and Great Lakes Landscape Conservation Cooperative, USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, and The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center. We thank K. Inoue for comments on a previous version of this manuscript. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ahlgren CE (1957) Phenological observations of nineteen native tree species in northeastern Minnesota. Ecology 38:622–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baber MJ, Fleishman E, Babbitt KJ, Tarr TL (2004) The relationship between wetland hydroperiod and nested patterns in assemblages of larval amphibians and predatory macroinvertebrates. Oikos 107:16–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bärlocher F, Mackay RJ, Wiggins GB (1978) Detritus processing in a temporary vernal pool in southern Ontario. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 81:269–295Google Scholar
  4. Battle JM, Golladay SW (2001) Hydroperiod influence on breakdown of leaf litter in cypress-gum wetlands. The American Midland Naturalist 146:128–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batzer DP, Boix D (2016) An introduction to freshwater wetlands and their invertebrates. In: Batzer DP, Boix D (eds) Invertebrates in freshwater wetlands: an international perspective on their ecology. Springer, New York, pp 1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batzer DP, Palik BJ (2007) Variable response by aquatic invertebrates to experimental manipulations of leaf litter input into seasonal woodland ponds. Fundamental and Applied Limnology/Archiv für Hydrobiologie 168:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Batzer DP, Wissinger SA (1996) Ecology of insect communities in nontidal wetlands. Annual Review of Entomology 41:75–100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Batzer DP, Jackson R, Mosner M (2000) Influences of riparian logging on plants and invertebrates in small, depressional wetlands of Georgia. Hydrobiologia 441:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Batzer DP, Palik BJ, Buech R (2004) Relationships between environmental characteristics and macroinvertebrate communities in seasonal woodland ponds of Minnesota. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23:50–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Batzer DP, Dietz-Brantley SE, Taylor BE, Debiase AE (2005) Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24:403–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Batzer DP, Cooper R, Wissinger SA (2014) Wetland animal ecology. In: Batzer DP, Sharitz RR (eds) Ecology of freshwater and estuarine wetlands. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 242–284Google Scholar
  12. Baxter CV, Fausch KD, Saunders WC (2005) Tangled webs: reciprocal flows of invertebrate prey link streams and riparian zones. Freshwater Biology 50:201–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benedict MA, Frelich LE (2008) Site factors affecting black ash ring growth in northern Minnesota. Forest Ecology and Management 255:3489–3493Google Scholar
  14. Benke AC, Wallace JB (2003) Influence of wood on invertebrate communities in streams and rivers. In: Gregory S, Boyer K, Gurnell A (eds) The ecology and Management of Wood in world rivers. MD pp, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, pp 149–177Google Scholar
  15. Binckley CA, Resetarits WJ (2007) Effects of forest canopy on habitat selection in treefrogs and aquatic insects: implications for communities and metacommunities. Oecologia 153:951–958CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brooks RT (2000) Annual and season variation and the effects of hydroperiod on benthic macroinverbrates of seasonal forest (“vernal”) ponds in central massachusetts, USA. Wetlands 20:707–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen JS, Ng S, Blossey B (2012) Amount of litter determines tadpole performance in experimental microcosms. Journal of Herpetology 46:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dahl TE (2011) Status and trends of wetlands in the conterminous United States 2004 to 2009. US Department of the Interior; fish and wildlife Service, Washington, DC, p 108Google Scholar
  19. Dudgeon D, Arthington AH, Gessner MO, Kawabata ZI, Knowler DJ, Lévêque C, Naiman RJ, Prieur-Richard AH, Soto D, Stiassny ML, Sullivan CA (2006) Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews 81:163–182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Earl JE, Luhring TM, Williams BK, Semlitsch RD (2011) Biomass export of salamanders and anurans from ponds is affected differentially by changes in canopy cover. Freshwater Biology 56:2473–2482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eggert SL, Wallace JB (2007) Wood biofilm as a food resource for stream detritivores. Limnology and Oceanography 52:1239–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ellison AM, Bank MS, Clinton BD, Colburn EA, Elliott K, Ford CR, Foster DR, Kloeppel BD, Knoepp JD, Lovett GM, Mohan J (2005) Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3:479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Erdmann GG, Crow TR, Peterson RM, Wilson CD (1987) Managing black ash in the Lake states. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NC-115Google Scholar
  24. Flower CE, Gonzalez-Meler MA (2015) Responses of temperate Forest productivity to insect and pathogen disturbances. Annual Review of Plant Biology 66:547–569CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Flower CE, Knight KS, Gonzalez-Meler MA (2013) Impacts of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) induced ash (Fraxinus spp) mortality on forest carbon cycling and successional dynamics in the eastern United States. Biological Invasions 15:931–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Flower CE, Long LC, Knight KS, Rebbeck J, Brown JS, Gonzalez-Meler MA, Whelan CJ (2014) Native bark-foraging birds preferentially forage in infected ash (Fraxinus spp.) and prove effective predators of the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). Forest Ecology and Management 313:300–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ford CR, Vose JM (2007) Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. Mortality will impact hydrologic processes in southern Appalachian forest ecosystems. Ecological Applications 17:1156–1167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gandhi KJK, Herms DA (2010) North American arthropods at risk due to widespread Fraxinus mortality caused by the alien emerald ash borer. Biological Invasions 12:1839–1846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gandhi KJK, Smith A, Hartzler DM, Hermes DA (2014) Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles. Environmental Entomology 43:546–555CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. González JM, Graça MAS (2003) Conversion of leaf litter to secondary production by a shredding caddis-fly. Freshwater Biology 48:1578–1592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gupta A, Miedtke J (2009) Ash management guidelines for private forest land owners. University of Minnesota Extension and Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Available at http://www.myminnesotawoods.umn.edu/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/Ash-Management-Guide.pdf. Accessed Oct 2016
  32. Hanson MA, Bowe SE, Ossman FG, Fieberg J, Butler MG, Koch R (2009) Influences of forest harvest and environmental gradients on aquatic invertebrate communities of seasonal ponds. Wetlands 29:884–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Herms DA, McCullough DG (2014) Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management. Annual Review of Entomology 59:13–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hocking DJ, Babbitt KJ (2014) Amphibian contributions to ecosystem services. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 9:1–17Google Scholar
  35. Holmes TP, Aukema JE, Von Holle B, Liebhold A, Sills E (2009) Economic impacts of invasive species in forests: past, present, and future. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1162:18–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Huryn AD, Gibbs KE (1999) Riparian sedge meadows in Maine. In: Batzer DP, Radar RB, Wissinger SA (eds) Invertebrates in freshwater wetlands of North America: ecology and management. Wiley, New York, pp 363–382Google Scholar
  37. Iverson L, Knight KS, Prasad A, Herms DA, Matthews S, Peters M, Smith A, Hartzler DM, Long R, Almendinger J (2015) Potential species replacements for black ash (Fraxinus nigra) at the confluence of two threats: emerald ash borer and a changing climate. Ecosystems 19:248–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kashian DM, Witter JA (2011) Assessing the potential for ash canopy tree replacement via current regeneration following emerald ash borer-caused mortality on southeastern Michigan landscapes. Forest Ecology and Management 261:480–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Klooster WS, Herms DA, Knight KS, Herms CP, McCullough DG, Smith A, Gandhi KJK (2014) Ash (Fraxinus spp) mortality, regeneration, and seed bank dynamics in mixed hardwood forests following invasion by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis). Biological Invasions 16:859–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koenig WD, Liebhold AM, Bonter DN, Hochachka WM, Dickinson JL (2013) Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on four species of birds. Biological Invasions 15:2095–2103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kolka RK, Palik BJ, Tersteeg DP, Bell JC (2011) Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds. Transactions of the ASABE 54:2111–2116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lenhart C, Brooks K, Davidson M, Slesak R, and D’Amato A (2012) Hydrologic source characterization of black ash wetlands: implications for EAB response. Proceedings of the American Water Resources Association Summer Specialty Conference Riparian Ecosystems IV: Advancing Science, Economics and Policy Denver, CO June 27-29, 2012Google Scholar
  43. Looney CE, D’Amato AW, Palik BJ, Slesak RA (2015) Overstory treatment and planting season affect survival of replacement tree species in emerald ash borer threatened Fraxinus nigra forests in Minnesota, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 45:1728–1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Looney CE, D’Amato AW, Fraver S, Palik BJ, Reinikainen MR (2016) Examining the influences of tree-to-tree competition and climate on size-growth relationships in hydric, multi-aged Fraxinus nigra stands. Forest Ecology and Management 375:238–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Looney CE, D'Amato AW, Palik BJ, Slesak RA, Slater MA (2017) The response of Fraxinus nigra forest ground-layer vegetation to emulated emerald ash borer mortality and management strategies in northern Minnesota, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 389:352–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lovett GM, Canham CD, Arthur MA, Weathers KC, Fitzhugh RD (2006) Forest ecosystem responses to exotic pests and pathogens in eastern North America. BioScience 56:395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lovett GM, Weiss M, Leibhold AM, Holmes TP, Leung B, Lambert KF, et al (2016) Nonnative forest insects and pathogens in the United States: impacts and policy options. Ecological Applications 0: 1–19Google Scholar
  48. Magnusson AK, Williams DD (2006) The roles of natural temporal and spatial variation versus biotic influences in shaping the physiochemical environment of intermittent ponds: a case study. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 165:537–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mehring AS, Maret TJ (2011) Red maple dominance enhances fungal and shredder growth and litter processing in temporary ponds. Limnology and Oceanography 56:1106–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Melillo JM, Aber JD, Muratore JF (1982) Nitrogen and lignin control of hardwood leaf litter decomposition dynamics. Ecology 63:621–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Merritt RW, Cummins KW, Berg MB (2008) An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. Kendall Hunt Publishing, NY USAGoogle Scholar
  52. MNDNR (2003) Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota: the Laurentian mixed forest province. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. St Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  53. Murphy KL, Klopatek JM, Klopatek CC (1998) The effects of litter quality and climate on decomposition along an elevational gradient. Ecological Applications 8:1061–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nisbet D, Kreutzweiser D, Sibley P, Scarr T (2015) Ecological risks posed by emerald ash borer to riparian forest habitats: a review and problem formulation with management implications. Forest Ecology and Management 358:165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Palik BJ, Kastendick D (2010) Response of seasonal pond plant communities to upland forest harvest in northern Minnesota forests, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 260:628–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Palik B, Batzer DP, Buech R, Nichols D, Cease K, Egeland L, Streblow DE (2001) Season pond characteristics across a chronosequence of adjacent forest ages in northern Minnesota, USA. Wetlands 21:532–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Palik B, Batzer DP, Kern C (2006) Upland forest linkages to seasonal wetlands: litter flux, processing, and food quality. Ecosystems 9:142–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Palik BJ, Ostry ME, Venette RC, Abdela E (2011) Fraxinus nigra (black ash) dieback in Minnesota: regional variation and potential contributing factors. Forest Ecology and Management 261:128–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Palik BJ, Ostry ME, Venette RC, Abdela E (2012) Tree regeneration in black ash (Fraxinus nigra) stands exhibiting crown dieback in Minnesota. Forest Ecology and Management 269:26–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Peterman WE, Anderson TL, Drake DL, Ousterhout BH, Semlitsch RD (2014) Maximizing pond diversity across the landscape: a case study of larval ambystomatid salamanders. Animal Conservation 17:275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Peterson RC, Cummins KW (1974) Leaf processing in a woodland stream. Freshwater Biology 4:343–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pittman SE, Osbourn MS, Drake DL, Semlitsch RD (2013) Predation of juvenile ringed salamanders (Ambystoma annulatum) during initial movement out of ponds. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 8:681–687Google Scholar
  63. Plenzler MA, Michaels HJ (2015) Terrestrial habitat quality impacts macroinvertebrate diversity in temporary wetlands. Wetlands 35:1093–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Poland TM, McCullough DG (2006) Emerald ash borer: invasion of the urban forest and the threat to North America’s ash resource. Journal of Forestry 104:118–124Google Scholar
  65. Richter-Boix A, Llorente GA, Montori A (2007) Structure and dynamics of an amphibian metacommunity in two regions. The Journal of Animal Ecology 76:607–618CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Rothermel BB, Semlitsch RD (2002) An experimental investigation of landscape resistance of forest versus old-field habitats to emigrating juvenile amphibians. Conservation Biology 16:1324–1332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rowland FE, Bricker KJ, Vanni MJ, González MJ (2015) Light and nutrients regulate energy transfer through benthic and pelagic food chains. Oikos 12:1648–1663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rubbo MJ, Kiesécker JM (2004) Leaf litter composition and community structure: translating regional species changes into local dynamics. Ecology 85:2519–2525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sacerdote AB, King RB (2009) Dissolved oxygen requirements for hatching success of two ambystomatid salamanders in restored ephemeral ponds. Wetlands 29:1202–1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schiesari L (2006) Pond canopy cover: a resource gradient for anuran larvae. Freshwater Biology 51:412–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schiesari L, Werner EE, Kling GW (2009) Carnivory and resource-based niche differentiation in anuran larvae: implications for food web and experimental ecology. Freshwater Biology 54:572–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schneider DW, Frost TM (1996) Habitat duration and community structure in temporary ponds. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 15:64–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schriever TA, Cadotte MW, Williams DD (2014) How hydroperiod and species richness affect the balance of resource flows across aquatic-terrestrial habitats. Aquatic Sciences 76:131–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Semlitsch RD, Todd BD, Blomquist SM, Calhoun AJK, Gibbons JW, Gibbs JP, Graeter GJ, Harper EB, Hocking DJ, Hunter ML, Patrick DA, Rittenhouse TAG, Rothermel BB (2009) Effects of timber harvest on amphibian populations: understanding mechanisms from forest experiments. BioScience 59:853–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Skelly DK (2001) Distributions of pond-breeding anurans: an overview of mechanisms. Israel Journal of Zoology 47:313–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Slesak RA, Lenhart CF, Brooks KNB, D’Amato AW, Palik BJ (2014) Water table responses to harvesting and simulated emerald ash borer mortality in black ash wetlands, Minnesota USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 968:961–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smock LA, MacGregor CM (1988) Impact of the American chestnut blight on aquatic shredding macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 7:212–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stephens JP, Berven KA, Tiegs SD (2013) Anthropogenic changes to leaf litter input affect the fitness of a larval amphibian. Freshwater Biology 58:1631–1646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Stoler AB, Relyea RA (2011) Living in the litter: the influence of tree leaf litter on wetland communities. Oikos 120:862–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tardiff J, Bergeron Y (1999) Population dynamics of Fraxinus nigra in response to flood-level variations, in northwestern Quebec. Ecological Monographs 69:107–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Telander AC, Slesak RA, D’Amato AW, Palik BJ, Brooks KN, Lenhart CF (2015) Sap flow of black ash in wetland forests of northern Minnesota, USA: hydrologic implications of tree mortality due to emerald ash borer. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 206:4–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) (2017) Emerald ash borer. https://www.Aphis.Usda.Gov/. Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6nuKTzjvs
  83. USDA Forest Service (FS) (2016) Forests of the Northern Forest Inventory & Analysis Program. Web report. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Houghton, MIGoogle Scholar
  84. Van Grinsven MJ (2015) Implications of emerald ash borer disturbance on black ash wetland watershed hydrology, soil carbon efflux, and dissolved organic matter composition. Michigan Technilogical University, PhD DissertationGoogle Scholar
  85. Varhola A, Coops NC, Weiler M, Moore RD (2010) Forest canopy effects on snow accumulation and ablation: an integrative review of empirical results. Journal of Hydrology 319:219–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Verry ES (1986) Forest harvesting and water: the Lake states experience. Water Resources Bulletin 22:1039–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vesterdal L, Schmidt I, Callesen I, Nilsson L, Gunderson P (2008) Carbon and nitrogen in forest floor and mineral soil under six common European tree species. Forest Ecology and Management 255:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wagner DL, Todd KJ (2015) Chapter 2: ecological impacts of emerald ash borer. In: Van Driesche RG, Reardon RC (eds) Biology and control of emerald ash borer. USDA Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, Morgantown WV, pp 15–64Google Scholar
  89. Wallace JB, Eggert SL, Meyer JL, Webster JR (1997) Multiple trophic levels of a forest stream linked to terrestrial litter inputs. Science 277:102–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Webster JR, Benfield EF (1986) Vascular plant breakdown in freshwater ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17:567–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Werner EE, Glennemeier KS (1999) Influence of forest canopy cover on the breeding pond distributions of several amphibian species. Copeia 1999:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Werner EE, Skelly DK, Relyea RA, Yurewicz KL (2007) Amphibian species richness across environmental gradients. Oikos 116:1697–1712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Whiles MR, Gladyshev MI, Sushchik NN, Makhutova ON, Kalachova GS, Peterson SD, Regester KJ (2010) Fatty acid analyses reveal high degrees of omnivory and dietary plasticity in pond-dwelling tadpoles. Freshwater Biology 55:1533–1547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wiggins GB, Mckay RJ, Smith IM (1980) Evolutionary and ecological strategies of animals in annual temporary pools. Archiv für Hydrobiologie Supplement 58:97–206Google Scholar
  95. Wissinger SA (1999) Ecology of wetland invertebrates: synthesis and applications for conservation and management. In: Batzer DP, Radar RB, Wissinger SA (eds) Invertebrates in freshwater wetlands of North America: ecology and management. NY pp, Wiley, New York, pp 1043–1086Google Scholar
  96. Wissinger SA, Brown WS, Jannot JE (2003) Caddisfly life histories along permanence gradients in high-altitude wetlands in Colorado (USA). Freshwater Biology 48:255–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wissinger SA, Whissel JC, Eldermire C (2006) Predator defense along a permanence gradient: roles of case structure, behavior, and developmental phenology in caddisflies. Oecologia 148:667–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wright JW, Rauscher HM (1990) Black ash. In: burns RM, Honkala BG (eds) silvics of North America volume 2, hardwoods agricultural handbook 654. USDA, Washington DC, pp 344–347Google Scholar

Copyright information

© US Government 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melissa B. Youngquist
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sue L. Eggert
    • 2
  • Anthony W. D’Amato
    • 3
  • Brian J. Palik
    • 2
  • Robert A. Slesak
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Forest ResourcesUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.Northern Research StationUSDA Forest ServiceGrand RapidsUSA
  3. 3.Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural ResourcesUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA
  4. 4.Minnesota Forest Resources CouncilSt. PaulUSA

Personalised recommendations