Advertisement

Wetlands

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 195–199 | Cite as

Freshwater Sardines of the Pantanal Delay Seed Germination in a Floodplain Tree Species

  • Tamires Soares Yule
  • Francisco Severo-Neto
  • Ana Paula Tinti-Pereira
  • Liana Baptista de Lima Corrêa da Costa
Short Communication

Abstract

Most studies involving the consumption of fruit and subsequent secondary dispersal of seeds by vertebrates point to birds and mammals as the main agents of dispersal. However, evidence suggests that fish also perform this important ecological role. After observing the consumption of Banara arguta fruits by fish of the Pantanal floodplain, we decided to investigate the disperser role of the freshwater sardine Triportheus nematurus. Our main goal was to compare the germination of seeds recovered from the intestinal tract of individuals (consumed) with that of seeds collected directly from uneaten ripe fruit (control). While no difference in germination percentage was found between consumed and control seeds, germination speed was higher in control seeds. Delay in germination speed during the flood season is a well-known mechanism adopted by floodplain plants to ensure germination in appropriate conditions. Thus far, few studies have reported on the effect of fish in this process. Furthermore, germination percentage was not affected by the presence of intact seeds in the intestinal tract of T. nematurus, placing this species among potential dispersers of B. arguta fruit.

Keywords

Ichthyochory Granivory Dispersal Wetland Salicaceae 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Dr. Ângela Sartori and UFMS for logistical support in collecting, Dr. Fabio de Oliveira Roque for helping with manuscript preparation and CAPES, FUNDECT-MS and CNPq for funding support toward the authors’ Master’s degrees.

References

  1. Anderson JT, Rojas JS, Flecker AS (2009) High-quality seed dispersal by fruit-eating fishes in Amazonian floodplain habitats. Oecologia 161:279–290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson JT, Nuttle T, Saldaña-Rojas JS, Pendergast TH, Flecker AS (2011) Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore. Proceedings of the Royal Society. Biological Sciences 278:3329–3335PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brasil (2009) Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Secretaria de Defesa Agropecuária. Regras para Análise de Sementes. Mapa/ACS, Brasília, 399 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Bravo SP (2009) Implications of behavior and gut passage for seed dispersal quality: the case of Black and Gold Howler monkeys. Biotropica 41:751–758Google Scholar
  5. Chick JH, Cosgriff RJ, Gittinger LS (2003) Fish as potential dispersal agents for floodplain plants: first evidence in North America. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 60:1437–1439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Correa SB, Winemiller KO, López-Fernández H, Galetti M (2007) Evolutionary perspectives on seed consumption and dispersal by fishes. Bioscience 57:748–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Correa SB, Costa-Pereira R, Fleming T, Goulding M, Anderson JT (2015) Neotropical fish–fruit interactions: eco-evolutionary dynamics and conservation. Biological Reviews. doi: 10.1111/brv.12153 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Costa-Pereira R, Severo-Neto F, Yule TS, Pereira APT (2011) Fruit-eating fishes of Banara arguta (Salicaceae) in the Miranda River floodplain, Pantanal wetland. Biota Neotropica 11:373–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Noir FA, Bravo S, Abdala R (2002) Mecanismos de dispersión de algunas especies de leñosas nativas del Chaco Occidental y Serrano. Quebracho 9:140–150Google Scholar
  10. Ferreira CS, Piedade MTF, Junk WJ, Parolin P (2007) Floodplain and upland populations of Amazonian Himatanthus sucuuba: Effects of flooding on germination, seedling growth and mortality. Environ Exp Bot 60:477–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Galetti M, Donatti CI, Pizo MA, Giacomini HC (2008) Big fish are the best: Seed dispersal of Bactris glaucensis by the Pacu fish (Piaractus mesopotamicus) in the Pantanal, Brazil. Biotropica 40:386–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gonçalves F, Munin R, Costa P, Fischer E (2007) Feeding habits of Noctilio albiventris (Noctilionidae) bats in the Pantanal, Brazil. Acta Chiropterologica 9:535–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gottsberger G (1978) Seed dispersal by fish in the inundated region of Humaitá, Amazonia. Biotropica 10:170–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goulding M (1980) The Fishes and the Forest: Explorations in Amazonian Natural History. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  15. Goulding M (1983) The role of fishes in seed dispersal and plant distribution in Amazonian floodplain ecosystems. Sonderb Naturwiss 7:271–283Google Scholar
  16. Horn MH (1997) Evidence for dispersal of fig seeds by the fruit-eating characid fish Brycon guatemalensis Regan in a Costa Rican tropical rain forest. Oecologia 107:259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Horn M, Correa SB, Parolin P, Pollux BJA, Anderson JT, Lucas C, Widmann P, Tjiu A, Galetti M, Goulding M (2011) Seed dispersal by fishes in tropical and temperate fresh waters: the growing evidence. Acta Oecol 37:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Howe HF, Smallwood J (1982) Ecology of seed dispersal. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 13:201–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jordano P (2000) Fruits and frugivory. In: Fenner M (ed) Seeds: the ecology of regeneration in plant communities, 2nd edn. CABI Publ, Wallingford, United Kingdom, pp. 125–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Junk WJ, Brown M, Campbell IC, Finlayson M, Gopal B, Ramberg L, Warner BG (2006) The comparative biodiversity of seven globally important wetlands: a synthesis. Aquat Sci 68:400–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kozlowski TT (1997) Responses of woody plants to flooding and salinity. Tree Physiol Monogr 1:1–29Google Scholar
  22. Kubitzki K, Ziburski A (1994) Seed dispersal in flood plain forests of Amazonia. Biotropica 26:30–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lorenzi H (2002) Árvores brasileiras, vol v. 2. Nova Odessa, Instituto PlantarumGoogle Scholar
  24. Lourival R, Drechsler M, Watts ME, Game ET, Possingham HP (2011) Planning for reserve adequacy in dynamic landscapes; maximizing future representation of vegetation communities under flood disturbance in the Pantanal wetland. Divers Distrib 17:297–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lucas CM (2008) Within flood season variation of fruit consumption and seed dispersal by two Characin fishes of the Amazon. Biotropica 40:581–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Maguire JD (1962) Speed of germination-aid in relation evaluation for seedling emergence vigor. Crop Sci 2:176–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Maia LA, Santos LM, Parolin P (2007) Germinação de Bothriospora corymbosa (Rubiaceae) recuperadas do trato digestório de Triportheus angulatus (sardinha) no Lago Camaleão, Amazônia Central. Acta Amazon 37:321–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Malabarba MCSL (2004) Revision of the Neotropical genus Triportheus Cope, 1872 (Characiformes: Characidae). Neotrop Ichthyol 2:167–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mannheimer S, Bevilacqua G, Caramaschi EP, Scarano R (2003) Evidence for seed dispersal by the catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus in an Amazonian lake. J Trop Ecol 19:215–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marcos-Filho J (2005) Fisiologia de sementes de plantas cultivadas. Fealq, PiracicabaGoogle Scholar
  31. Parolin P (2001) Morphological and physiological adjustments to waterlogging and drought in seedlings of Amazonian floodplain trees. Oecologia 128:326–335CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Pott A, Pott VJ (1994) Plantas do Pantanal. Embrapa, CorumbáGoogle Scholar
  33. Ragusa-Netto J, Fecchio A (2006) Plant food resources and the diet of a parrot community in a gallery forest of the southern Pantanal (Brazil). Braz J Biol 66Google Scholar
  34. Reys P, Sabino J, Galetti M (2009) Frugivory by the fish Brycon hilarii (Characidae) in western Brazil. Acta Oecol 35:136–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Robertson AW, Trass A, Ladley JJ, Kelly D (2006) Assessing the benefits of frugivory for seed germination: the importance of the deinhibition effect. Funct Ecol 20:58–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schupp EW (1993) Quantity, quality and the effectiveness of seed dispersal by animals. Vegetatio 107(108):15–29Google Scholar
  37. Severo-Neto F, Yule TS, Costa-Pereira (2011) Parakeets as facilitators of fish frugivory in the Southern Pantanal. Atualidades Ornitológicas 169:15Google Scholar
  38. Silveira RML, Weiss B (2014) Evidence for herbaceous seed dispersal by small-bodied fishes in a Pantanal seasonal wetland. Braz J Biol 74:588–596CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Systat Software, Inc (2007) Systat 12. Systat Software, Inc., San Jose, CAGoogle Scholar
  40. Traveset A (1998) Effect of seed passage through vertebrate frugivores’ guts on germination: a review. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 1:151–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Traveset A, Verdú M (2002) A meta-analysis of the effect of gut treatment on seed germination. In: Seed Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation (eds D.J. Levey, W.R. Silva and M. Galetti). Wallingford, CABI Publishing, pp. 339–350Google Scholar
  42. Wootton RJ (1998) Ecology of Teleost Fishes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Second EditionGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of Wetland Scientists 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratório de Botânica/CCBSUniversidade Federal de Mato Grosso do SulCampo GrandeBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Zoologia/CCBSUniversidade Federal de Mato Grosso do SulCampo GrandeBrazil

Personalised recommendations