Advertisement

Wetlands

, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp 1067–1077 | Cite as

N2O Fluxes from Peatland Buffer Areas after High N Loadings in Five Forested Catchments in Finland

  • Anu HynninenEmail author
  • Hannu Fritze
  • Sakari Sarkkola
  • Veikko Kitunen
  • Hannu Nousiainen
  • Niko Silvan
  • Jukka Laine
  • Arja Tervahauta
  • Mika Nieminen
Article

Abstract

Peatlands are becoming increasingly used as buffer areas to reduce nutrient transport into watercourses, but knowledge on the dynamics of the element cycle, particularly in gas phase is scant. We investigated if peatland buffer areas significantly contribute to emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from forested catchments. We used an artificial addition of 150 kg NH4NO3 per buffer area (146–750 kg NH4NO3 ha−1) and quantified the N2O emission before and after the N loading. We conducted an extensive study with eight sampling positions and sampling interval of 1–5 weeks at five buffer areas, and an intensive study using 14 sampling positions and sampling frequency of 1–7 days at one area. In the extensive study, the average fluxes were −0.33–0.14 mg N2O m−2 d−1 before the N addition, and after the N addition they were 0.99–5.30 mg N2O m−2 d−1. During the intensive study, overall loss of N2O was estimated to be 0.74 kg N2O or 0.15 kg N2O ha−1. Considering the impacts on stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming, the study indicated low N2O emissions even when N loading increased to higher level than is likely to occur under actual conditions in forested catchments.

Keywords

Global warming Natural peatland Nitrous oxide Nutrient transport Restored peatland 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful for the financial support provided by Graduate School in Forest Sciences, Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation, Maa- ja vesitekniikan tuki ry. (MVTT), and Niemi Foundation. We also thank Saija Rautakorpi, Heli Miettinen, and Kaisa Silvan for field work assistance and Markus Hartman for providing language help.

References

  1. Alm J, Shurpali NJ, Tuittila E-S, Laurila T, Maljanen M, Saarnio S, Minkkinen K (2007) Methods for determining emission factors for the use of peat and peatlands-flux measurements and modelling. Boreal Environment Research 12:85–100Google Scholar
  2. Baggs EM, Stevenson M, Pihlatie M, Regar A, Cook H, Cadisch G (2003) Nitrous oxide emissions following application of residues and fertilizer under zero and conventional tillage. Plant and Soil 254:361–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Crutzen PJ (1970) The influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 96:320–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dosskey MG (2001) Toward quantifying water pollution abatement in response to installing buffers on crop land. Environmental Management 28:577–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Drebs A, Nordlund A, Karlsson P, Helminen J, Rissanen P (2002) Climatological Statistics of Finland 1971–2000. Finnish Meteorological Institute, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  6. Hefting M, Bobbink R, de Caluwe H (2003) Nitrous oxide emission and denitrification in chronically nitrate-loaded riparian buffer zones. Journal of Environmental Quality 32:1194–1203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Heikurainen L, Pakarinen P (1982) Peatland classification. In: Laine J (ed) Peatlands and their utilization in Finland, Finnish Peatland Society, Finnish National Committee of International Peat Society, pp 53–62Google Scholar
  8. Höper H, Augustin J, Cagampan JP, Drösler M, Lundin L, Moors E, Vasander H, Waddington JM, Wilson D (2008) Restoration of peatlands and greenhouse gas balances. In: Strack M (ed) Peatlands and climate change. International Peat Society, Calgary, pp 182–210Google Scholar
  9. Huttunen A, Heikkinen K, Ihme R (1996) Nutrient retention in the vegetation of an overland flow treatment system in Northern Finland. Aquatic Botany 55:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ihme R, Heikkinen K, Lakso E (1991) The use of overland flow for the purification of runoff water from peat mining areas. Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 9:3–24Google Scholar
  11. IPCC (2007) IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate change 2007 (AR4). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. ISO 10694 (1995) Determination of Organic and Total Carbon after Dry Combustion (Elementary Analysis). International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  13. Jaatinen K, Laiho R, Vuorenmaa A, del Castillo U, Minkkinen K, Pennanen T, Penttilä T, Fritze H (2008) Responses of aerobic microbial communities and soil respiration to water-level drawdown in a northern boreal fen. Environmental Microbiology 10:339–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jarva M, Tervahauta A (1993) Methods of water analysis. Research Reports from the Finnish Forest Research Institute 477, pp 1–171Google Scholar
  15. Kaiser E-A, Kohrs K, Kücke M, Schnug E, Heinemeyer O, Munch JC (1998) Nitrous oxide release from arable soil: Importance of N-fertilization, crops and temporal variation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30:1553–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Khalil MAK (1999) Non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 24:645–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kortelainen P, Saukkonen S (1998) Leaching of nutrients, organic carbon and iron from Finnish forestry land. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 105:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Knowles R (1982) Denitrification. Microbiological Reviews 46:43–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Koops JG, van Beusichem ML, Oenema O (1997) Nitrogen loss from grassland on peat soils through nitrous oxide production. Plant and Soil 188:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Koponen H, Duran C, Maljanen M, Hytönen J, Martikainen P (2006) Temperature responses of NO and N2O emissions from boreal organic soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38:1779–1787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lundin L, Bergquist B (1985) Peatland fertilization. Short-term chemical effects of runoff water. Studia Forestalia Suecica 171Google Scholar
  22. Lundin L, Bergquist B (1990) Effects on water chemistry after drainage of a bog for forestry. Hydrobiologia 196:167–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lundin L, Nilsson T, Lucci G (2008) Mires as buffer areas for high water quality in forest land. In: Farrell C, Feehan J (eds) After Wise Use - The Future of Peatlands. Proceedings of the 13th International Peat Congress, Tullamore, Ireland 8–13 June 2008, Volume 2, Poster presentations. International Peat Society, pp 491–494Google Scholar
  24. Maljanen M, Hytönen J, Martikainen PJ (2001) Fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 on afforested boreal agricultural soils. Plant and Soil 231:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maljanen M, Liikanen A, Silvola J, Martikainen PJ (2003) Measuring N2O emissions from organic soils by closed chamber or soil/snow N2O gradient methods. European Journal of Soil Science 54:625–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mander Ü, Kuusemets V, Lõhmus K, Mauring T (1997) Efficiency and dimensioning of riparian buffer zones in agricultural catchments. Ecological Engineering 8:299–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Manninen P (1998) Effects of forestry ditch cleaning and supplementary ditching on water quality. Boreal Environmental Research 3:23–32Google Scholar
  28. Martikainen P, Nykänen H, Alm J, Silvola J (1995) Change in fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide due to forest drainage of mire sites of different trophy. Plant and Soil 168–169:571–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Műller M, Sundman V, Skujin J (1980) Denitrification in low pH spodosols and peats determined with the acetylene inhibition method. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 40:235–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Nieminen M (2004) Export of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus following clear-cutting of three Norway spruce forests growing on drained peatlands in Southern Finland. Silva Fennica 38:123–132Google Scholar
  31. Nykänen H, Alm J, Lång K, Silvola J, Martikainen P (1995) Emissions of CH4, N2O and CO2 from a virgin fen and a fen drained for grassland in Finland. Journal of Biogeography 22:351–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pihlatie M, Syväsalo E, Simojoki A, Esala M, Regina K (2004) Contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O production in peat, clay and loamy sand soils under different soil moisture conditions. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 70:135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Regina K, Nykänen H, Maljanen M, Silvola J, Martikainen PJ (1996) Fluxes of nitrous oxide from boreal peatlands as affected by peatland type, water table level and nitrification capacity. Biogeochemistry 35:401–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Regina K, Syväsalo E, Hannukkala A, Esala M (2004) Fluxes of N2O from farmed soils in Finland. European Journal of Soil Science 55:591–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. SFS-EN ISO 13395 (1997) Finnish Standard for Nitrite and Nitrate and Their Sum with Spectrophotometric Method and CFA- and FIA-techniques. Finnish Standards Association, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  36. Silvan N, Regina K, Kitunen V, Vasander H, Laine J (2002) Gaseous nitrogen loss from a restored peatland buffer zone. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34:721–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Silvan N, Tuittila E-S, Kitunen V, Vasander H, Laine J (2004) Nitrate uptake by Eriophorum vaginatum controls N2O production in a restored peatland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37:1519–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sloey W, Spangler F, Fetter CW (1978) Management of freshwater wetlands for nutrient assimilation. In: Good R, Wightman D, Simpson R (eds) freshwater wetlands. Academic, New York, pp 321–340Google Scholar
  39. Surakka S, Kämppi A (1971) Jätevesien suohonimeytyksestä. (Infiltration of waste water into peat soil). Suo 3–4:51–57 [In Finnish]Google Scholar
  40. Uusivuori J, Kallio M, Salminen O (2008) Vaihtoehtolaskelmat Kansallisen metsäohjelman 2015 valmistelua varten. Working papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 75 [In Finnish]Google Scholar
  41. Väänänen R, Nieminen M, Vuollekoski M, Ilvesniemi H (2008) Retention of phosphorus in peatland buffer zones at six forested catchments in Southern Finland. Silva Fennica 42:211–231Google Scholar
  42. Vikman A, Sarkkola S, Koivusalo H, Sallantaus T, Laine J, Silvan N, Nousiainen H, Nieminen M (2010) Nitrogen retention by peatland buffer areas at six forested catchments in southern and central Finland. Hydrobiologia 641:171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of Wetland Scientists 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anu Hynninen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hannu Fritze
    • 1
  • Sakari Sarkkola
    • 1
  • Veikko Kitunen
    • 1
  • Hannu Nousiainen
    • 1
  • Niko Silvan
    • 2
  • Jukka Laine
    • 2
  • Arja Tervahauta
    • 1
  • Mika Nieminen
    • 1
  1. 1.Finnish Forest Research InstituteVantaa Research UnitVantaaFinland
  2. 2.Finnish Forest Research InstituteParkano Research UnitParkanoFinland

Personalised recommendations