Implementation of the Land Surface Processes into a Vector Vorticity Equation Model (VVM) to Study its Impact on Afternoon Thunderstorms over Complex Topography in Taiwan

  • Chien-Ming WuEmail author
  • Hsiao-Chun Lin
  • Fang-Yi Cheng
  • Mu-Hua Chien
Original Article


In this study, we aim to evaluate the impact of fast land-atmosphere interactions on the afternoon thunderstorm in Taiwan through high-resolution meteorological simulations. For this purpose, the Noah land surface model (LSM) is implemented into the vector vorticity equation cloud-resolving model (VVM) with corresponding realistic land surface data of Taiwan into the coupling system, called TaiwanVVM. Two idealized experiments are conducted by giving the same surface forcing but one with direct land-atmosphere coupling from Noah LSM (called Coupled experiment) and the other with prescribed surface fluxes (called Prescribed experiment). Our results show that the fast land-atmosphere interaction over complex topography has a significant influence on rainfall intensity, especially in the heavy precipitating region where the interaction is strong. Without direct coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere in the Prescribed experiment, the diurnal intensity is suppressed by 50% over whole Taiwan and 70% for East Taiwan. Our findings demonstrate that the intensity of the afternoon thunderstorm is sensitive to fast land-atmosphere interactions by modifying local circulation in the mountainous region of Taiwan.


Land-atmosphere interactions Afternoon thunderstorms Cloud-resolving model TaiwanVVM 



We thank TIMS for providing computation resources and data storages. The authors are supported by Taiwan’s MoST through grant 107-2111-M-002 -010 -MY4 to National Taiwan University.


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© Korean Meteorological Society and Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Atmospheric SciencesNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Atmospheric SciencesNational Central UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Atmospheric and Environmental SciencesUniversity at Albany, State University of New YorkAlbanyUSA
  4. 4.Center for Atmosphere Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical SciencesNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA

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