Translational Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 470–482 | Cite as

Self-report measures of medication adherence behavior: recommendations on optimal use

  • Michael J. Stirratt
  • Jacqueline Dunbar-Jacob
  • Heidi M. Crane
  • Jane M. Simoni
  • Susan Czajkowski
  • Marisa E. Hilliard
  • James E. Aikens
  • Christine M. Hunter
  • Dawn I. Velligan
  • Kristen Huntley
  • Gbenga Ogedegbe
  • Cynthia S. Rand
  • Eleanor Schron
  • Wendy J. Nilsen
Practice and Public Health Policies


Medication adherence plays an important role in optimizing the outcomes of many treatment and preventive regimens in chronic illness. Self-report is the most common method for assessing adherence behavior in research and clinical care, but there are questions about its validity and precision. The NIH Adherence Network assembled a panel of adherence research experts working across various chronic illnesses to review self-report medication adherence measures and research on their validity. Self-report medication adherence measures vary substantially in their question phrasing, recall periods, and response items. Self-reports tend to overestimate adherence behavior compared with other assessment methods and generally have high specificity but low sensitivity. Most evidence indicates that self-report adherence measures show moderate correspondence to other adherence measures and can significantly predict clinical outcomes. The quality of self-report adherence measures may be enhanced through efforts to use validated scales, assess the proper construct, improve estimation, facilitate recall, reduce social desirability bias, and employ technologic delivery. Self-report medication adherence measures can provide actionable information despite their limitations. They are preferred when speed, efficiency, and low-cost measures are required, as is often the case in clinical care.


Adherence Compliance Self-management Medication Self-report 



The paper is based in part on an NIH Adherence Network meeting on “Advancing the Science of Adherence Assessment: A Working Meeting on Self-Report Measures,” sponsored by the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences (OBSSR) and held 17 October 2011. We are grateful to Shoshana Kahana for her contributions, to Janet de Moor, Martha Hare, Donna McCloskey, and Anne Trontell for their paper feedback, and to all members of the NIH Adherence Network for their support.

Source of funding

This paper was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) and the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) through award number U01AR057954 (Crane). Additional support was provided through National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) grant PO1NR010949 (Dunbar-Jacob), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) grant K12DK097696 (Hilliard), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) grant K24HL111315 (Ogedegbe), and National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) grants K24MH093243 (Simoni) and R01MH084759 (Crane). Further support (for Simoni and Crane) was provided by the University of Washington Center for AIDS Research (CFAR), an NIH-funded centers program (P30AI27757) which is collaboratively supported by NIAID, NCI, NIMH, NIDA, NICHD, NHLBI, and NIA.

Authors’ statement of conflict of interest and adherence to ethical standards

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. All procedures were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000.


The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as the official recommendations or policy of the NIH, its constituent institutes, or other author-affiliated organizations.


  1. 1.
    Garfield S, Clifford S, Eliasson L, Barber N, Willson A. Suitability of measures of self-reported medication adherence for routine clinical use: a systematic review. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 2011; 11: 149.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gonzalez JS, Schneider HE. Methodological issues in the assessment of diabetes treatment adherence. Current Diabetes Reports. 2011; 11: 472-479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hall KS, White KO, Reame N, Westhoff C. Studying the use of oral contraception: a review of measurement approaches. Journal of Women's Health. 2010; 19: 2203-2210.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Paschal AM, Hawley SR, St Romain T, Ablah E. Measures of adherence to epilepsy treatment: review of present practices and recommendations for future directions. Epilepsia. 2008; 49: 1115-1122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Simoni JM, Kurth AE, Pearson CR, et al. Self-report measures of antiretroviral therapy adherence: A review with recommendations for HIV research and clinical management. AIDS and Behavior. 2006; 10: 227-245.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Velligan DI, Lam YW, Glahn DC, et al. Defining and assessing adherence to oral antipsychotics: a review of the literature. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2006; 32: 724-742.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nguyen TM, Caze AL, Cottrell N. (2013) What are validated self-report adherence scales really measuring?: a systematic review. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Garber MC, Nau DP, Erickson SR, Aikens JE, Lawrence JB. The concordance of self-report with other measures of medication adherence: a summary of the literature. Medical Care. 2004; 42: 649-652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilson IB, Carter AE, Berg KM. Improving the self-report of HIV antiretroviral medication adherence: is the glass half full or half empty? Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 2009; 6: 177-186.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Osterberg L, Blaschke T. Adherence to medication. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2005; 353: 487-497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vrijens B, De Geest S, Hughes DA, et al. A new taxonomy for describing and defining adherence to medications. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2012; 73: 691-705.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Voils CI, Hoyle RH, Thorpe CT, Maciejewski ML, Yancy WS Jr. Improving the measurement of self-reported medication nonadherence. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2011; 64: 250-254.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cramer JA, Benedict A, Muszbek N, Keskinaslan A, Khan ZM. The significance of compliance and persistence in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia: a review. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2008; 62: 76-87.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    DiMatteo MR, Giordani PJ, Lepper HS, Croghan TW. Patient adherence and medical treatment outcomes: a meta-analysis. Medical Care. 2002; 40: 794-811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Granger BB, Swedberg K, Ekman I, et al. Adherence to candesartan and placebo and outcomes in chronic heart failure in the CHARM programme: double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial. Lancet. 2005; 366: 2005-2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rasmussen JN, Chong A, Alter DA. Relationship between adherence to evidence-based pharmacotherapy and long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2007; 297: 177-186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Simpson SH, Eurich DT, Majumdar SR, et al. A meta-analysis of the association between adherence to drug therapy and mortality. BMJ. 2006; 333: 15.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Asche C, LaFleur J, Conner C. A review of diabetes treatment adherence and the association with clinical and economic outcomes. Clinical Therapeutics. 2011; 33: 74-109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hood KK, Peterson CM, Rohan JM, Drotar D. Association between adherence and glycemic control in pediatric type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2009; 124: e1171-e1179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Riegel B, Knafl GJ. Electronically monitored medication adherence predicts hospitalization in heart failure patients. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2013; 8: 1-13.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dragomir A, Cote R, Roy L, et al. Impact of adherence to antihypertensive agents on clinical outcomes and hospitalization costs. Medical Care. 2010; 48: 418-425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pladevall M, Williams LK, Potts LA, et al. Clinical outcomes and adherence to medications measured by claims data in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27: 2800-2805.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marin D, Bazeos A, Mahon FX, et al. Adherence is the critical factor for achieving molecular responses in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who achieve complete cytogenetic responses on imatinib. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2010; 28: 2381-2388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dragomir A, Cote R, White M, et al. Relationship between adherence level to statins, clinical issues and health-care costs in real-life clinical setting. Value in Health. 2010; 13: 87-94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Briesacher BA, Andrade SE, Fouayzi H, Chan KA. Comparison of drug adherence rates among patients with seven different medical conditions. Pharmacotherapy. 2008; 28: 437-443.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cramer JA. A systematic review of adherence with medications for diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27: 1218-1224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    DiMatteo MR. Variations in patients' adherence to medical recommendations: a quantitative review of 50 years of research. Medical Care. 2004; 42: 200-209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vink NM, Klungel OH, Stolk RP, Denig P. Comparison of various measures for assessing medication refill adherence using prescription data. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2009; 18: 159-165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yeaw J, Benner JS, Walt JG, Sian S, Smith DB. Comparing adherence and persistence across 6 chronic medication classes. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy. 2009; 15: 728-740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    de Klerk E, van der Heijde D, Landewe R, et al. Patient compliance in rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and gout. Journal of Rheumatology. 2003; 30: 44-54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mannheimer S, Thackeray L, Huppler Hullsiek K, et al. A randomized comparison of two instruments for measuring self-reported antiretroviral adherence. AIDS Care. 2008; 20: 161-169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Berg KM, Arnsten JH. Practical and conceptual challenges in measuring antiretroviral adherence. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2006; 43(Suppl 1): S79-S87.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chesney MA. The elusive gold standard. Future perspectives for HIV adherence assessment and intervention. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2006; 43(Suppl 1): S149-S155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Quittner AL, Modi AC, Lemanek KL, Ievers-Landis CE, Rapoff MA. Evidence-based assessment of adherence to medical treatments in pediatric psychology. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 2008; 33: 916-936. discussion 937–918.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Williams AB, Amico KR, Bova C, Womack JA. A proposal for quality standards for measuring medication adherence in research. AIDS and Behavior. 2013; 17: 284-297.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kimmerling M, Wagner G, Ghosh-Dastidar B. Factors associated with accurate self-reported adherence to HIV antiretrovirals. International Journal of STD and AIDS. 2003; 14: 281-284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Knobel H, Alonso J, Casado JL, et al. Validation of a simplified medication adherence questionnaire in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients: the GEEMA Study. AIDS. 2002; 16: 605-613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wagner G. Utility of self-reported antiretroviral adherence: Comment on Simoni et al. (2006). AIDS and Behavior. 2006; 10: 247-248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Simoni JM, Montgomery A, Martin E, et al. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for pediatric HIV infection: a qualitative systematic review with recommendations for research and clinical management. Pediatrics. 2007; 119: e1371-e1383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dobbels F, Berben L, De Geest S, et al. The psychometric properties and practicability of self-report instruments to identify medication nonadherence in adult transplant patients: a systematic review. Transplantation. 2010; 90: 205-219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bangsberg DR. Monitoring adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy in routine clinical practice: the past, the present, and the future. AIDS and Behavior. 2006; 10: 249-251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Morisky DE, Ang A, Krousel-Wood M, Ward HJ. Predictive validity of a medication adherence measure in an outpatient setting. Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2008; 10: 348-354.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chesney MA, Ickovics JR, Chambers DB, et al. Self-reported adherence to antiretroviral medications among participants in HIV clinical trials: the AACTG adherence instruments. Patient Care Committee & Adherence Working Group of the Outcomes Committee of the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (AACTG). AIDS Care. 2000; 12: 255-266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Berg KM, Wilson IB, Li X, Arnsten JH. Comparison of antiretroviral adherence questions. AIDS and Behavior. 2012; 16: 461-468.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Greenlaw SM, Yentzer BA, O'Neill JL, Balkrishnan R, Feldman SR. Assessing adherence to dermatology treatments: a review of self-report and electronic measures. Skin Research and Technology. 2010; 16: 253-258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rand CS. "I Took the Medicine Like You Told Me, Doctor": Self-Report of Adherence with Medical Regimens. In: Stone AA, Turkkan JS, Bachrach CA, et al., eds. The science of self-report: Implications for research and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2000: 257-276.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nieuwkerk PT, Oort FJ. Self-reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection and virologic treatment response: a meta-analysis. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2005; 38: 445-448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kahana SY, Rohan J, Allison S, Frazier TW, Drotar D. A meta-analysis of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and virologic responses in HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults. AIDS and Behavior. 2013; 17: 41-60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Usitalo A, Leister E, Tassiopoulos K, et al. Relationship between viral load and self-report measures of medication adherence among youth with perinatal HIV infection. AIDS Care. 2014; 26: 107-115.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Koschack J, Marx G, Schnakenberg J, Kochen MM, Himmel W. Comparison of two self-rating instruments for medication adherence assessment in hypertension revealed insufficient psychometric properties. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2010; 63: 299-306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dunbar-Jacob J, Sereika SM, Houze M, Luyster FS, Callan JA. Accuracy of measures of medication adherence in a cholesterol-lowering regimen. Western Journal of Nursing Research. 2012; 34: 578-597.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Voils CI, Maciejewski ML, Hoyle RH, et al. Initial validation of a self-report measure of the extent of and reasons for medication nonadherence. Medical Care. 2012; 50: 1013-1019.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gonzalez JS, Schneider HE, Wexler DJ, et al. Validity of medication adherence self-reports in adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2013; 36: 831-837.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Arnsten JH, Demas PA, Farzadegan H, et al. Antiretroviral therapy adherence and viral suppression in HIV-infected drug users: comparison of self-report and electronic monitoring. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2001; 33: 1417-1423.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shi L, Liu J, Koleva Y, et al. Concordance of adherence measurement using self-reported adherence questionnaires and medication monitoring devices. PharmacoEconomics. 2010; 28: 1097-1107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Shi L, Liu J, Fonseca V, et al. Correlation between adherence rates measured by MEMS and self-reported questionnaires: a meta-analysis. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2010; 8: 99.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bova CA, Fennie KP, Knafl GJ, et al. Use of electronic monitoring devices to measure antiretroviral adherence: practical considerations. AIDS and Behavior. 2005; 9: 103-110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pearson CR, Simoni JM, Hoff P, Kurth AE, Martin DP. Assessing antiretroviral adherence via electronic drug monitoring and self-report: an examination of key methodological issues. AIDS Behavior. 2006.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sajatovic M, Velligan DI, Weiden PJ, Valenstein MA, Ogedegbe G. Measurement of psychiatric treatment adherence. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2010; 69: 591-599.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Steiner JF. Self-reported adherence measures: what do they assess and how should we use them? Medical Care. 2012; 50: 1011-1012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Voils CI, Hoyle RH, Thorpe CT, Maciejewski ML, Yancy WS Jr. Response to Morisky & DiMatteo: Improving the measurement of self-reported medication nonadherence. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2011; 64: 250-254.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kim MT, Hill MN, Bone LR, Levine DM. Development and testing of the Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing. 2000; 15: 90-96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Krousel-Wood M, Islam T, Webber LS, et al. New medication adherence scale versus pharmacy fill rates in seniors with hypertension. The American Journal of Managed Care. 2009; 15: 59-66.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Morisky DE, Green LW, Levine DM. Concurrent and predictive validity of a self-reported measure of medication adherence. Medical Care. 1986; 24: 67-74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shea S, Misra D, Ehrlich MH, Field L, Francis CK. Correlates of nonadherence to hypertension treatment in an inner-city minority population. American Journal of Public Health. 1992; 82: 1607-1612.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Svarstad BL, Chewning BA, Sleath BL, Claesson C. The Brief Medication Questionnaire: a tool for screening patient adherence and barriers to adherence. Patient Education and Counseling. 1999; 37: 113-124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Steiner JF. Rethinking adherence. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2012; 157: 580-585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Feldman BJ, Fredericksen RJ, Crane PK, et al. Evaluation of the single-item self-rating adherence scale for use in routine clinical care of people living with HIV. AIDS and Behavior. 2013; 17: 307-318.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lu M, Safren SA, Skolnik PR, et al. Optimal recall period and response task for self-reported HIV medication adherence. AIDS and Behavior. 2008; 12: 86-94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wilson IB, Fowler FJ, Jr., Cosenza CA, et al. (2013) Cognitive and Field Testing of a New Set of Medication Adherence Self-Report Items for HIV Care. AIDS Behavior.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Nieuwkerk PT, de Boer-van der Kolk IM, Prins JM, Locadia M, Sprangers MA. Self-reported adherence is more predictive of virological treatment response among patients with a lower tendency towards socially desirable responding. Antivir Ther. 2010; 15: 913-916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Velligan DI, Weiden PJ, Sajatovic M, et al. Assessment of adherence problems in patients with serious and persistent mental illness: recommendations from the Expert Consensus Guidelines. Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 2010; 16: 34-45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tourangeau R, Smith TW. Asking sensitive questions: the impact of data collection mode, question format, and question context. Public Opinion Quarterly. 1996; 2: 275-304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Islam MM, Topp L, Conigrave KM, et al. The reliability of sensitive information provided by injecting drug users in a clinical setting: clinician-administered versus audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI). AIDS Care. 2012; 24: 1496-1503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Newman JC, Des Jarlais DC, Turner CF, et al. The differential effects of face-to-face and computer interview modes. American Journal of Public Health. 2002; 92: 294-297.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Des Jarlais DC, Paone D, Milliken J, et al. Audio-computer interviewing to measure risk behaviour for HIV among injecting drug users: a quasi-randomised trial. Lancet. 1999; 353: 1657-1661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kissinger P, Rice J, Farley T, et al. Application of computer-assisted interviews to sexual behavior research. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1999; 149: 950-954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Locke SE, Kowaloff HB, Hoff RG, et al. Computer-based interview for screening blood donors for risk of HIV transmission. JAMA. 1992; 268: 1301-1305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sanders GD, Owens DK, Padian N, et al. A computer-based interview to identify HIV risk behaviors and to assess patient preferences for HIV-related health states. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care. 1994:20–24.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wilson AS, Kitas GD, Carruthers DM, et al. Computerized information-gathering in specialist rheumatology clinics: an initial evaluation of an electronic version of the Short Form 36. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2002; 41: 268-273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Velikova G, Wright EP, Smith AB, et al. Automated collection of quality-of-life data: a comparison of paper and computer touch-screen questionnaires. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1999; 17: 998-1007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Aiello EJ, Taplin S, Reid R, et al. In a randomized controlled trial, patients preferred electronic data collection of breast cancer risk-factor information in a mammography setting. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2006; 59: 77-81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Chinman M, Young AS, Schell T, Hassell J, Mintz J. Computer-assisted self-assessment in persons with severe mental illness. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2004; 65: 1343-1351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Perlis TE, Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Arasteh K, Turner CF. Audio-computerized self-interviewing versus face-to-face interviewing for research data collection at drug abuse treatment programs. Addiction. 2004; 99: 885-896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kurth AE, Martin DP, Golden MR, et al. A comparison between audio computer-assisted self-interviews and clinician interviews for obtaining the sexual history. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2004; 31: 719-726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Metzger DS, Koblin B, Turner C, et al. Randomized controlled trial of audio computer-assisted self-interviewing: utility and acceptability in longitudinal studies. HIVNET Vaccine Preparedness Study Protocol Team. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2000; 152: 99-106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ghanem KG, Hutton HE, Zenilman JM, Zimba R, Erbelding EJ. Audio computer assisted self interview and face to face interview modes in assessing response bias among STD clinic patients. Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2005; 81: 421-425.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hanscom B, Lurie JD, Homa K, Weinstein JN. Computerized questionnaires and the quality of survey data. Spine. 2002; 27: 1797-1801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bock B, Niaura R, Fontes A, Bock F. Acceptability of computer assessments among ethnically diverse, low-income smokers. American Journal of Health Promotion. 1999; 13: 299-304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Castle T, Cunningham MA, Marsh GM. Antidepressant medication adherence via interactive voice response telephone calls. The American Journal of Managed Care. 2012; 18: e346-e355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Vollmer WM, Feldstein A, Smith DH, et al. Use of health information technology to improve medication adherence. The American Journal of Managed Care. 2011; 17: SP79-SP87.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hettema JE, Hosseinbor S, Ingersoll KS. Feasibility and reliability of interactive voice response assessment of HIV medication adherence: research and clinical implications. HIV Clin Trials. 2012; 13: 271-277.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Harris LT, Lehavot K, Huh D, et al. Two-way text messaging for health behavior change among human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals. Telemed J E Health. 2010; 16: 1024-1029.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Granholm E, Ben-Zeev D, Link PC, Bradshaw KR, Holden JL. Mobile assessment and treatment for schizophrenia (MATS): a pilot trial of an interactive text-messaging intervention for medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2012; 38: 414-425.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dowshen N, Kuhns LM, Johnson A, Holoyda BJ, Garofalo R. Improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy for youth living with HIV/AIDS: a pilot study using personalized, interactive, daily text message reminders. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2012; 14: e51.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Bender BG, Bartlett SJ, Rand CS, et al. Impact of interview mode on accuracy of child and parent report of adherence with asthma-controller medication. Pediatrics. 2007; 120: e471-e477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Giordano TP, Guzman D, Clark R, Charlebois ED, Bangsberg DR. Measuring adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a diverse population using a visual analogue scale. HIV Clinical Trials. 2004; 5: 74-79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kalichman SC, Amaral CM, Swetzes C, et al. A simple single-item rating scale to measure medication adherence: further evidence for convergent validity. Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (Chicago, Ill). 2009; 8: 367-374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Walsh JC, Dalton M, Gazzard BG. Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy assessed by anonymous patient self-report. AIDS. 1998; 12: 2361-2363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Simoni J, Huh D, Wang Y, et al. The validity of self-reported medication adherence as an outcome in clinical trials of adherence-promotion interventions: findings from the MACH14 study. AIDS Behav. 2014; 18: 2285-2290.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Bangsberg DR, Hecht FM, Clague H, et al. Provider assessment of adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2001; 26: 435-442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Byerly M, Fisher R, Whatley K, et al. A comparison of electronic monitoring vs. clinician rating of antipsychotic adherence in outpatients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research. 2005; 133: 129-133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Miller LG, Liu H, Hays RD, et al. How well do clinicians estimate patients' adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy? Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2002; 17: 1-11.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ose D, Mahler C, Vogel I, et al. Let's talk about medication: concordance in rating medication adherence among multimorbid patients and their general practitioners. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2012; 6: 839-845.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Velligan DI, Wang M, Diamond P, et al. Relationships among subjective and objective measures of adherence to oral antipsychotic medications. Psychiatric Services. 2007; 58: 1187-1192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Thompson MA, Mugavero MJ, Amico KR, et al. Guidelines for improving entry into and retention in care and antiretroviral adherence for persons with HIV: evidence-based recommendations from an International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care panel. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2012; 156: 817-833.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wolford G, Rosenberg SD, Rosenberg HJ, et al. A clinical trial comparing interviewer and computer-assisted assessment among clients with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services. 2008; 59: 769-775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lofland JH, Schaffer M, Goldfarb N. Evaluating health-related quality of life: cost comparison of computerized touch-screen technology and traditional paper systems. Pharmacotherapy. 2000; 20: 1390-1395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Williams CA, Templin T, Mosley-Williams AD. Usability of a computer-assisted interview system for the unaided self-entry of patient data in an urban rheumatology clinic. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 2004; 11: 249-259.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Smith MW, Sharit J, Czaja SJ. Aging, motor control, and the performance of computer mouse tasks. Human Factors. 1999; 41: 389-396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kim J, Trace D, Meyers K, Evens M. An empirical study of the Health Status Questionnaire System for use in patient-computer interaction. Proceedings AMIA Annual Fall Symptom. 1997:86–90.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Feldman BJ, Fredericksen RJ, Crane PK, et al. Evaluation of the single-item self-rating adherence scale for use in routine clinical care of people living with HIV. AIDS Behavior. 2012.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Erickson SR, Coombs JH, Kirking DM, Azimi AR. Compliance from self-reported versus pharmacy claims data with metered-dose inhalers. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2001; 35: 997-1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Duncan NA, Kronenberger WG, Roberson CP, Shapiro AD. VERITAS-PRN: a new measure of adherence to episodic treatment regimens in haemophilia. Haemophilia. 2010; 16: 47-53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Reynolds NR, Sun J, Nagaraja HN, et al. Optimizing measurement of self-reported adherence with the ACTG Adherence Questionnaire: a cross-protocol analysis. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2007; 46: 402-409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Munoz-Moreno JA, Fumaz CR, Ferrer MJ, et al. Assessing self-reported adherence to HIV therapy by questionnaire: the SERAD (Self-Reported Adherence) Study. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 2007; 23: 1166-1175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Godin G, Gagne C, Naccache H. Validation of a self-reported questionnaire assessing adherence to antiretroviral medication. AIDS Patient Care and STDs. 2003; 17: 325-332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Amico KR, Fisher WA, Cornman DH, et al. Visual analog scale of ART adherence: association with 3-day self-report and adherence barriers. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2006; 42: 455-459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Schroeder K, Fahey T, Hay AD, Montgomery A, Peters TJ. Adherence to antihypertensive medication assessed by self-report was associated with electronic monitoring compliance. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2006; 59: 650-651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Zeller A, Schroeder K, Peters TJ. An adherence self-report questionnaire facilitated the differentiation between nonadherence and nonresponse to antihypertensive treatment. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2008; 61: 282-288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Frazier PA, Davis-Ali SH, Dahl KE. Correlates of noncompliance among renal transplant recipients. Clinical Transplantation. 1994; 8: 550-557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Tucker CM, Petersen S, Herman KC, et al. Self-regulation predictors of medication adherence among ethnically different pediatric patients with renal transplants. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 2001; 26: 455-464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Chisholm MA, Lance CE, Williamson GM, Mulloy LL. Development and validation of the immunosuppressant therapy adherence instrument (ITAS). Patient Education and Counseling. 2005; 59: 13-20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Cukor D, Rosenthal DS, Jindal RM, Brown CD, Kimmel PL. Depression is an important contributor to low medication adherence in hemodialyzed patients and transplant recipients. Kidney International. 2009; 75: 1223-1229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Byerly MJ, Nakonezny PA, Rush AJ. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS) validated against electronic monitoring in assessing the antipsychotic medication adherence of outpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Schizophrenia Research. 2008; 100: 60-69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Scott J, Pope M. Self-reported adherence to treatment with mood stabilizers, plasma levels, and psychiatric hospitalization. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2002; 159: 1927-1929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Wicks P, Massagli M, Kulkarni A, Dastani H. Use of an online community to develop patient-reported outcome instruments: the Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Adherence Questionnaire (MS-TAQ). Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2011; 13, e12.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Breuil V, Cortet B, Cotte FE, et al. Validation of the adherence evaluation of osteoporosis treatment (ADEOS) questionnaire for osteoporotic post-menopausal women. Osteoporosis International. 2012; 23: 445-455.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    de Klerk E, van der Heijde D, van der Tempel H, van der Linden S. Development of a questionnaire to investigate patient compliance with antirheumatic drug therapy. Journal of Rheumatology. 1999; 26: 2635-2641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    McHorney CA, Victor Spain C, Alexander CM, Simmons J. Validity of the adherence estimator in the prediction of 9-month persistence with medications prescribed for chronic diseases: a prospective analysis of data from pharmacy claims. Clinical Therapeutics. 2009; 31: 2584-2607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kripalani S, Risser J, Gatti ME, Jacobson TA. Development and evaluation of the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS) among low-literacy patients with chronic disease. Value in Health. 2009; 12: 118-123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    DiMatteo MR, Sherbourne CD, Hays RD, et al. Physicians' characteristics influence patients' adherence to medical treatment: results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Health Psychology. 1993; 12: 93-102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wu JR, Chung M, Lennie TA, Hall LA, Moser DK. Testing the psychometric properties of the Medication Adherence Scale in patients with heart failure. Heart and Lung. 2008; 37: 334-343.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Orwig D, Brandt N, Gruber-Baldini AL. Medication management assessment for older adults in the community. Gerontologist. 2006; 46: 661-668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Zelikovsky N, Schast AP. Eliciting accurate reports of adherence in a clinical interview: development of the Medical Adherence Measure. Pediatric Nursing. 2008; 34: 141-146.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the US) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Stirratt
    • 1
  • Jacqueline Dunbar-Jacob
    • 2
  • Heidi M. Crane
    • 3
  • Jane M. Simoni
    • 4
  • Susan Czajkowski
    • 5
  • Marisa E. Hilliard
    • 6
  • James E. Aikens
    • 7
  • Christine M. Hunter
    • 8
  • Dawn I. Velligan
    • 9
  • Kristen Huntley
    • 10
  • Gbenga Ogedegbe
    • 11
  • Cynthia S. Rand
    • 12
  • Eleanor Schron
    • 13
  • Wendy J. Nilsen
    • 14
  1. 1.NIH/National Institute of Mental Health Division of AIDS ResearchBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.School of NursingUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Division of Infectious DiseasesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  5. 5.NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood InstituteBethesdaUSA
  6. 6.Department of PediatricsBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  7. 7.Department of Family MedicineUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  8. 8.NIH/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney DiseasesBethesdaUSA
  9. 9.Health Science CenterUniversity of TexasSan AntonioUSA
  10. 10.NIH/National Institute on Drug AbuseBethesdaUSA
  11. 11.School of MedicineNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  12. 12.School of MedicineJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  13. 13.NIH/National Eye InstituteBethesdaUSA
  14. 14.National Science FoundationArlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations