Translational Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 149–161 | Cite as

Putting program evaluation to work: a framework for creating actionable knowledge for suicide prevention practice

  • Natalie Wilkins
  • Sally Thigpen
  • Jennifer Lockman
  • Juliette Mackin
  • Mary Madden
  • Tamara Perkins
  • James Schut
  • Christina Van Regenmorter
  • Lygia Williams
  • John Donovan
Original Research

ABSTRACT

The economic and human cost of suicidal behavior to individuals, families, communities, and society makes suicide a serious public health concern, both in the US and around the world. As research and evaluation continue to identify strategies that have the potential to reduce or ultimately prevent suicidal behavior, the need for translating these findings into practice grows. The development of actionable knowledge is an emerging process for translating important research and evaluation findings into action to benefit practice settings. In an effort to apply evaluation findings to strengthen suicide prevention practice, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) supported the development of three actionable knowledge products that make key findings and lessons learned from youth suicide prevention program evaluations accessible and useable for action. This paper describes the actionable knowledge framework (adapted from the knowledge transfer literature), the three products that resulted, and recommendations for further research into this emerging method for translating research and evaluation findings and bridging the knowledge–action gap.

KEYWORDS

Suicide prevention Youth Actionable knowledge Knowledge to action Knowledge–action Research-to-practice Implementation Knowledge transfer Public health 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The authors wish to acknowledge the contributions of Dr. Richard Puddy (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Violence Prevention) and Dr. Richard McKeon (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) for their leadership and contributions to the Enhanced Evaluation Project. The authors would also like to recognize the contributions of Dr. Chad Rodi (ICF MACRO) and ICF MACRO in the Enhanced Evaluation Project and actionable knowledge tool development.

References

  1. 1.
    Crosby AE, Ortega L, Melanson C. Self-Directed Violence Surveillance: Uniform Definitions and Recommended Data Elements, Version 1.0. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Available at: www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html. Accessed February 29, 2012.
  3. 3.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2011. Surveillance Summaries, June 8. MMWR 2012; 61 (No. 4).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Characteristics of public, private, and Bureau of Indian Education elementary and secondary teachers in the United States: Results from the 2007–08 Schools and Staffing Survey. NCES; 2009: 324.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Suicide: definitions. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC. Available at: http://cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/suicide/definitions.html. Accessed on October 12, 2011.
  6. 6.
    Institute of Medicine. Reducing Suicide: A National Imperative. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Corso PS, Mercy JA, Simon TR, et al. Medical costs and productivity losses due to interpersonal violence and self-directed violence. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32:474-482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dahlberg LL, Krug EG. Violence—a global public health problem. In: Krug E, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA, Zwi AB, Lozano R, eds. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002:1-56.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cavenaugh CE, Messing JT, Del-Colle M, O'Sullivan C, Campbell JC. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior among adult female victims of intimate partner violence. Suicide Life Threat. 2011;24:372-383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sansone RA, Gaither GA, Songer DA. The relationships among childhood abuse, borderline personality and self-harm behavior in psychiatric inpatients. Violence Vict. 2002;17:49-56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wiederman MW, Sansone RA, Sansone LA. Bodily self-harm and its relationship to childhood abuse among women in a primary care setting. Violence Against Wom. 1999;5:155-163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Backer TE, David SL, Soucy G. Introduction. In: Backer TE, David SL, Soucy G, eds. Reviewing the B ehavioral S cience K nowledge B ase on T echnology T ransfer. Rockville: National Institute on Drug Abuse; 1995:147-168.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clancy CM, Cronin K. Evidence-based decision making: global evidence, local decisions. Health Affair. 2005;24:151-162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Morrissey E, Wandersman A, Seybolt D, et al. Toward a framework for bridging the gap between science and practice in prevention: a focus on evaluator and practitioner perspectives. Eval Program Plann. 1997;20:367-377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mann J, Apter A, Bertolote J, et al. Suicide prevention strategies: a systematic review. J Amer Med Assoc. 2005;294:2064-2075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    White J. Preventing Suicide in Youth: T aking Action with Imperfect Knowledge. Vancouver: University of British Columbia; 2005.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dearing JW. Applying diffusion of innovation theory to intervention development. Res Soc Work Pract. 2009;19:503-518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Graham I, Logan J, Harrison M, et al. Lost in knowledge translation: time for a map? J Contin Educ Health. 2006;26:13-24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Glasgow RE, Vogt TM, Boles S. Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: the RE-AIM framework. Am J Public Health. 1999;89:1323-1327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jack S, Tonmyr L. Knowledge transfer and exchange: disseminating Canadian child maltreatment surveillance findings to decision makers. Child Indic Res. 2008;1:51-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lavis J, Ross S, McCleod C, et al. Measuring the impact of health research. J Health Serv Res Po. 2003;8:165-170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Klein K, Sorra J. The challenge of innovation implementation. Acad Manage Rev. 1996;21:1055-1080.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Landry R, Amara N, Laamary M. Utilization of social science research knowledge in Canada. Res Policy. 1998;30:333-349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rimer BK, Glanz K, Rasband G. Searching for evidence about health education and health behavior interventions. Health Educ Behav. 2001;28:231-248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rogers EM. Diffusion of Innovations. 4th ed. New York: Free Press; 1995.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lomas J. Using ‘Linkage and exchange’ to move research into policy at a Canadian foundation. Health Affair. 2000;19:236-240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Conklin A, Hallsworth M, Hatziandreu E, et al. Briefing on Linkage and Exchange: F acilitating Diffusion of Innovations in Health Services. Cambridge: Rand; 2008.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reardon R, Lavis J, Gibson J. From Research to Practice: A Knowledge Transfer and Planning Guide. Toronto: Institute for Work and Health; 2006.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Blood MR. Only you can create actionable knowledge. Acad Manag Learn Edu. 2006;5:209-212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schuchat, A, Bell, BP, Redd, SC. The science behind preparing and responding to pandemic influenza: the lessons and limits of science. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2011; Suppl 1: S8-S12.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reynolds B, Crouse-Quinn S. Effective communication during an influenza pandemic: the value of using a crisis and emergency communication framework. Heal Promot Pract. 2008;9:13S-17S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nielsen-Bohlman L. Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2004.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tenkasi R, Hay G. Actionable knowledge and scholar-practitioners: a process of theory–practice linkages. Syst Pract Act Res. 2004;17:177-206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lavis JN, Robertson D, Woodside JM, McLeod CB, Abelson J. How can research organizations more effectively transfer research knowledge to decision makers. Millbank Q. 2003;81:221-248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Puddy, R, Wilkins, NJ, Thigpen, S, et al. Expanding the definition for evidence in child maltreatment prevention. In: Alexander, S, Alexander, R, Guterman, N, eds. Prevention of Child Maltreatment. St. Louis, MO: G.W. Medical Publishing; in press.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Puddy R, Wilkins N. Understanding Evidence Part 1: Best Available Research Evidence. A Guide to the C ontinuum of E vidence of E ffectiveness. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thigpen, S, Puddy, R, Singer, H. Building the bridge: developing the Rapid Synthesis and Translation Process (RSTP) within the Interactive Systems Framework (ISF). J. Community Psychol. Special Issue;in press.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chagnon F, Houle J, Marcous I, et al. Control-group study of an intervention training program for youth suicide prevention. Suicide Life-Threat. 2007;37:135-144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Keller D, Schut J, Puddy R, et al. Tennessee Lives Count: statewide gatekeeper training for youth suicide prevention. Prof Psychol. 2009;40:126-133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    King K, Smith J, Project SOAR. A training program to increase school counselors' knowledge and confidence regarding suicide prevention and intervention. J School Health. 2000;70:402-407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Matthieu MM, Cross W, Batres AR, et al. Evaluation of gatekeeper training for suicide prevention in veterans. Arch Suicide Res. 2008;12:148-154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wyman PA, Brown CH, Inman J, et al. Randomized trial of a gatekeeper program for suicide prevention: 1-year impact on secondary school staff. J Consult Clin Psych. 2008;76:104-115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Schut, LJ, Luellen, J, Lockman, JD, et al. Psychometric analysis of measures in evaluation of gatekeeper training for suicide prevention. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lockman, JD, Padgett, JH, Williams, L, et al. Creating the shield of care gatekeeper training for staff in juvenile justice systems: using evaluation data for program improvement. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth risk behavior surveillance system. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/index.htm. Accessed on January 10, 2012.
  46. 46.
    Mackin, JR, Perkins, T, Tarte, J, et al. Life is Sacred Program enhanced evaluation: Oregon Native Youth Survey data multi-tribal community report. Prepared for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2011; Unpublished report.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Quarterly Tribal Prevention Meeting, March 9, 2010, Celilo, Oregon.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Madden, M, & Lichter, E. Maine youth suicide prevention program enhanced evaluation report. Prepared for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.2010; Unpublished report.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Madden, M, Haley, D, Hart, S, et al. An evaluation of Maine's comprehensive school-based youth suicide prevention program.Orno, ME: Center for Research and Evaluation, University of Maine. 2011. Unpublished report. Available at: http://www.maine.gov/suicide/docs/Final_CDCEvalPublicReport3-09.pdf. Accessed on January 10, 2011.

Copyright information

© Society of Behavioral Medicine 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natalie Wilkins
    • 1
  • Sally Thigpen
    • 1
  • Jennifer Lockman
    • 2
  • Juliette Mackin
    • 3
  • Mary Madden
    • 4
  • Tamara Perkins
    • 3
  • James Schut
    • 2
  • Christina Van Regenmorter
    • 2
  • Lygia Williams
    • 5
  • John Donovan
    • 6
  1. 1.Division of Violence Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Centerstone Research InstituteBloomingtonUSA
  3. 3.NPC ResearchPortlandUSA
  4. 4.College of Education and Human Development, University of MaineOronoUSA
  5. 5.Tennessee Department of Mental Health and Developmental DisabilitiesNashvilleUSA
  6. 6.Division of Violence Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations