Advertisement

Understanding Cultural Determinants of Scientific-Knowledge Development: Empirical Conceptualization from a Cross-Country Investigation

  • Enn Lun YongEmail author
Original Paper
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to test three hypotheses with regard to the development of scientific knowledge in relation to cultural dimensions. Two empirical models are formed to identify the causal effects of the cultural dimensions on scientific-knowledge development. The three hypotheses are tested in a case study consisting of 74 countries. Robust standard-error regressions are presented. The results show that the degree of egalitarian and hierarchical ethos across countries aids the growth of scientific knowledge. The empirical evidence complements new insights to the hypothesis of individualism-induced innovation. The evidence in this paper shows that the positive effect of individualism on the growth of scientific knowledge is also considerably lower than that of an egalitarian and hierarchical system. The proposition in this paper shows new insight into the economic and institutional evolution rooted in universal values of culture. As the world economy has been burdened by the enormous inequality of development, cultivating awareness of the competitive advantage hidden in cultural values is an essential prescription for advancing development policy pertaining to knowledge.

Keywords

Cultural dimension Egalitarianism Hierarchy Individualism Innovation Knowledge 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author is grateful to the anonymous reviewers and journal editors for their time and constructive comments. The data that support the findings of this study are publicly available from the sources cited in the text and reference list.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Competing Interests

The author declares that there are no financial and/or non-financial competing interests.

References

  1. Aghion, P., Harris, C., Howitt, P., & Vickers, J. (2001). Competition, imitation and growth with step-by-step innovation. Review of Economic Studies, 68(3), 467–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aghion, P., Bloom, N., Blundell, R., Griffith, R., & Howitt, P. (2005). Competition and innovation: An inverted-U relationship. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120(2), 701–728.Google Scholar
  3. Aghion, P., Blundell, R., Griffith, R., Howitt, P., & Prantl, S. (2009). The effects of entry on incumbent innovation and productivity. Review of Economics and Statistics, 91(1), 20–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akaike, H. (1973). Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In B. N. Petrov & F. Csaki (Eds.), Second international symposium on information theory (pp. 267–281). Budapest: Akailseoniai–Kiudo.Google Scholar
  5. Alesina, A., Spolaore, E., & Wacziarg, R. (2005). Trade, growth and the size of countries. Handbook of Economic Growth, 1(B), 1499–1542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alesina, A., Harnoss, J., & Rapoport, H. (2016). Birthplace diversity and economic prosperity. Journal of Economic Growth, 21(2), 101–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alvard, M. S. (2003). The adaptive nature of culture. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 12(3), 136–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aragones, E., Gilboa, I., Postlewaite, A., & Schmeidler, D. (2005). Fact-free learning. American Economic Review, 95(5), 1355–1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arrow, K. J. (1962). The economic implications of learning by doing. Review of Economic Studies, 29(3), 155–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bisin, A., & Verdier, T. (2000). “Beyond the melting pot”: Cultural transmission, marriage, and the evolution of ethnic and religious traits. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(3), 955–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blaug, M. (1991). The historiography of economics. Aldershot and Brookfield: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  12. Breusch, T. S., & Pagan, A. R. (1979). A simple test for heteroscedasticity and random coefficient variation. Econometrica, 47(5), 1287–1294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Covi, G. (2016). Local systems’ strategies copying with globalization: Collective local entrepreneurship. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 7(2), 513–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Moraes, C. O., Montes, G. C., & Antunes, J. A. P. (2016). How does capital regulation react to monetary policy? New evidence on the risk-taking channel. Economic Modelling, 56, 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dubina, I. N., Carayannis, E. G., & Campbell, D. F. J. (2012). Creativity economy and a crisis of the economy? Coevolution of knowledge, innovation, and creativity, and of the knowledge economy and knowledge society. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 3(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Easterly, W., & Levine, R. (1997). Africa’s growth tragedy: Policies and ethnic divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(4), 1203–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gkouzos, A., & Christofakis, M. (2018). Multiplier effects under a disaggregate economic base model. Journal of Economic Studies, 45(2), 383–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gorodnichenko, Y., & Roland, G. (2011). Which dimensions of culture matter for long-run growth? American Economic Review, 101(3), 492–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gorodnichenko, Y., & Roland, G. (2017). Culture, institutions, and the wealth of nations. Review of Economics and Statistics, 99(3), 402–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gujarati, D. N. (2003). Basic econometrics. NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  21. Hansen, C. W. (2013). Economic growth and individualism: The role of informal institutions. Economics Letters, 118(2), 378–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hofstede Insights. (n.d.). Intercultural management: Compare countries. https://www.hofstede-insights.com/product/compare-countries/. Accessed 2 Jul 2018.
  23. Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: Do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, 9(1), 42–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81–94.Google Scholar
  25. Hofstede, G. (1994). The business of international business is culture. International Business Review, 3(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hofstede, G. (1999). Problems remain, but theories will change: The universal and the specific in 21st-century global management. Organizational Dynamics, 27(1), 34–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  29. Jaffe, A. B. (1989). Real effects of academic research. American Economic Review, 79(5), 957–970.Google Scholar
  30. Jones, C. I. (1999). Growth: With or without scale effects? American Economic Review, 89(2), 139–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mankiw, N., Phelps, E., & Romer, P. (1995). The growth of nations. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1995(1), 275–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mansfield, E. (1995). Academic research underlying industrial innovations: Sources, characteristics, and financing. Review of Economics and Statistics, 77(1), 55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Maurseth, P. B. (2018). The effect of the internet on economic growth: Counter-evidence from cross-country panel data. Economics Letters, 172, 74–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. National Science Foundation. (n.d.). Science and engineering indicators: Scientific and Technical Journal Articles. World Bank: World Development Indicators. https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators. Accessed 7 Oct 2018.
  35. Persson, K. G., & Sharp, P. (2015). An economic history of Europe. Knowledge, institutions and growth, 600 to the present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ramsey, J. B. (1969). Tests for specification errors in classical linear least-squares regression analysis. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 31(2), 350–371.Google Scholar
  37. Romer, P. M. (1986). Increasing returns and long-run growth. Journal of Political Economy, 94(5), 1002–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Romer, P. M. (1990). Endogenous technological change. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), S71–S102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schwartz, S. H. (2008). The 7 Schwartz cultural value orientation scores for 80 countries. ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304715744_The_7_Schwartz_cultural_value_orientation_scores_for_80_countries. Accessed 2 July 2018.  https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3313.3040
  40. Snowdon, B., & Vane, H. R. (2005). Modern macroeconomics: Its origins, development and current state. Cornwall: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  41. United Nations Development Programme. (n.d.). Human development reports, human development data (1990-2017): Human development index. http://hdr.undp.org/en/data. Accessed 7 Oct 2018.
  42. Williams, L. K., & McGuire, S. J. (2010). Economic creativity and innovation implementation: The entrepreneurial drivers of growth? Evidence from 63 countries. Small Business Economics, 34(4), 391–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wittgenstein, L. (1922). Tractatus logico-philosophicus. London: Routledge 1961 reprint.Google Scholar
  44. Wooldridge, J. M. (2010). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. MA: MIT press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mathematics with Economics Programme, Faculty of Science and Natural ResourcesUniversiti Malaysia SabahKota KinabaluMalaysia

Personalised recommendations