Understanding Cultural Determinants of Scientific-Knowledge Development: Empirical Conceptualization from a Cross-Country Investigation
- 16 Downloads
The purpose of this paper is to test three hypotheses with regard to the development of scientific knowledge in relation to cultural dimensions. Two empirical models are formed to identify the causal effects of the cultural dimensions on scientific-knowledge development. The three hypotheses are tested in a case study consisting of 74 countries. Robust standard-error regressions are presented. The results show that the degree of egalitarian and hierarchical ethos across countries aids the growth of scientific knowledge. The empirical evidence complements new insights to the hypothesis of individualism-induced innovation. The evidence in this paper shows that the positive effect of individualism on the growth of scientific knowledge is also considerably lower than that of an egalitarian and hierarchical system. The proposition in this paper shows new insight into the economic and institutional evolution rooted in universal values of culture. As the world economy has been burdened by the enormous inequality of development, cultivating awareness of the competitive advantage hidden in cultural values is an essential prescription for advancing development policy pertaining to knowledge.
KeywordsCultural dimension Egalitarianism Hierarchy Individualism Innovation Knowledge
The author is grateful to the anonymous reviewers and journal editors for their time and constructive comments. The data that support the findings of this study are publicly available from the sources cited in the text and reference list.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The author declares that there are no financial and/or non-financial competing interests.
- Aghion, P., Bloom, N., Blundell, R., Griffith, R., & Howitt, P. (2005). Competition and innovation: An inverted-U relationship. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120(2), 701–728.Google Scholar
- Akaike, H. (1973). Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In B. N. Petrov & F. Csaki (Eds.), Second international symposium on information theory (pp. 267–281). Budapest: Akailseoniai–Kiudo.Google Scholar
- Blaug, M. (1991). The historiography of economics. Aldershot and Brookfield: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Gujarati, D. N. (2003). Basic econometrics. NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Hofstede Insights. (n.d.). Intercultural management: Compare countries. https://www.hofstede-insights.com/product/compare-countries/. Accessed 2 Jul 2018.
- Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81–94.Google Scholar
- Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Jaffe, A. B. (1989). Real effects of academic research. American Economic Review, 79(5), 957–970.Google Scholar
- National Science Foundation. (n.d.). Science and engineering indicators: Scientific and Technical Journal Articles. World Bank: World Development Indicators. https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators. Accessed 7 Oct 2018.
- Ramsey, J. B. (1969). Tests for specification errors in classical linear least-squares regression analysis. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 31(2), 350–371.Google Scholar
- Schwartz, S. H. (2008). The 7 Schwartz cultural value orientation scores for 80 countries. ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304715744_The_7_Schwartz_cultural_value_orientation_scores_for_80_countries. Accessed 2 July 2018. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3313.3040
- Snowdon, B., & Vane, H. R. (2005). Modern macroeconomics: Its origins, development and current state. Cornwall: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
- United Nations Development Programme. (n.d.). Human development reports, human development data (1990-2017): Human development index. http://hdr.undp.org/en/data. Accessed 7 Oct 2018.
- Wittgenstein, L. (1922). Tractatus logico-philosophicus. London: Routledge 1961 reprint.Google Scholar
- Wooldridge, J. M. (2010). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. MA: MIT press.Google Scholar