Advertisement

Journal of the Knowledge Economy

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 94–113 | Cite as

Quadruple Helix as a Way to Bridge the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: The Case of an Innovation System Project in the Baltic Sea Region

  • Malin Lindberg
  • Monica Lindgren
  • Johann PackendorffEmail author
Article

Abstract

In most developed economies there exist a clear gap between men and women in terms of prevalence of entrepreneurial activity. The gender gap can be traced back to the general perceptions of gender in society, where entrepreneurial venturing is culturally defined as a masculine activity. In this paper, we analyse how such gendered norms are brought into Triple Helix innovation system models, and identify roles and challenges of NGOs in the alternative conceptualization of Quadruple Helix. Based on an exploratory case study of a Quadruple Helix innovation system project in the tourism industry, we find that NGOs may fill four roles in bridging the gender gap: (1) collaborative platforms for women-led SMEs, (2) legitimating and linking women-led SMEs to governmental and academic actors, (3) developing competences and process innovations related to entrepreneurial venturing outside traditional Triple Helix constellations and (4) carrying individual and societal aspects of entrepreneuring.

Keywords

Entrepreneurship Innovation systems Gender gap Quadruple Helix Civil society organizations 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are indebted to a number of colleagues and practitioners for assistance in the research reported here. We would especially like to thank Anneli Kikkas, Pia Levin and Annika Skoglund for their efforts in compiling the empirical material, and Sofia Händel, Margareta Spång and Gunilla Sterner for providing practical insights and analyses. We also would like to thank Cali Nuur and the anonymous reviewers for most helpful comments on earlier versions of this paper. This research had not been possible without the financial support of the Central Baltic INTERREG IV A Programme 2007–2013, which is hereby gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Acker J (1999) Gender and organisation. In: Saltzman CJ (ed) Handbook of the sociology of gender. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Afonso O, Monteiro S, Thompson M (2010) A growth model for the quadruple helix innovation theory. FEP Working papers n. 370. University of Porto, PortoGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahl H (2006) Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions. Entrepren Theor Pract 30(5):595–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allen IE, Elam A, Langowitz N, Dean M (2008) Global entrepreneurship monitor. 2007 Report on women and entrepreneurship. Babson College, Center for Women’s LeadershipGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arnkil R, Järvensivu A, Koski P, Piirainen T (2010) Exploring the Quadruple Helix. The CLIQ project, TampereGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bjerregaard T (2010) Industry and academia in convergence: micro-institutional dimensions of R&D collaboration. Technovation 30(2):100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blake MK, Hanson S (2005) Rethinking innovation: context and gender. Environ Plan A 35:681–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brännback M, Carsrud A, Krueger N, Elfving J (2008) Challenging the Triple Helix model of regional innovation systems: a venture-centric model. Int J Technoentrepren 1(3):257–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brush CG, de Bruin A, Welter F (2009) A gender-aware framework for women’s entrepreneurship. Int J Gender Entrepren 1(1):8–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bruni A, Gherardi S, Poggio B (2004) Doing gender, doing entrepreneurship: an ethnographic account of intertwined practices. Gend Work Organ 11(4):406–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Calás M, Smircich L, Bourne KA (2009) Extending the boundaries: reframing “entrepreneurship as social change” through feminist perspectives. Acad Manag Rev 34(3):552–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carayannis EG, Campbell DFJ (2009) ‘Mode 3’ and ‘Quadruple Helix’: toward a 21st century fractal innovation ecosystem. Int J Technol Manag 46(3–4):201–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carayannis EG, Campbell DFJ (2010) Triple Helix, Quadruple Helix and Quintuple Helix and how do knowledge, innovation and the environment relate to each other? A proposed framework for a trans-disciplinary analysis of sustainable development and social ecology. Int J Soc Ecol Sustain Dev 1(1):41–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Carter N, Rosa P (1998) The financing of male- and female-owned business. Entrepren Reg Dev 10(2):225–241Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cornett AP (2009) Aims and strategies in regional innovation and growth policy: a Danish perspective. Entrepren Reg Dev 21(4):399–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Danilda I, Granat Thorslund J (eds) (2011) Innovation & Gender. VI 2011:03. Vinnova, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Delman J, Madsen ST (2007) Nordic triple helix Collaboration in Knowledge, Innovation, and Business in China and India: a preliminary study. NIAS-Nordic Institute of Asian StudiesGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Doyle W, Young JD (2001) Entrepreneurial networks in the micro business sector: examining differences across gender and business stage. J Small Bus Entrepren 16(1):40–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Eklund M (2007) Adoption of the innovation system concept in Sweden. (Diss.). Uppsala University, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Etzkowitz H, Leydesdorff L (2000) The dynamics of innovation: from national systems and ‘Mode 2’ to a Triple Helix of university–industry–government relations. Res Policy 29(22):100–123Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fagerberg J, Mowery DC, Nelson RR (eds) (2005) The Oxford handbook of innovation. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fenstermaker S, West C (eds) (2002) Doing gender, doing difference—inequality, power and institutional change. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Freeman C (2002) Continental, national and sub-national innovation systems—complementarity and economic growth. Res Policy 31:191–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fältholm Y, Abrahamsson L, Källhammer E (2010) ’Academic entrepreneurship—gendered discourses and ghettos’. J Technol Manag Innovat 5(1):51–63Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Galbraith B, Mulvenna M, McAdam R, Martin S (2008) Open innovation in connected health: an empirical study and research agenda. Paper presented at the Conference on Open Innovation: Creating Products and Services through Collaboration (ISPIM-2008) in Tours, FranceGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hjalager A-M (2002) Repairing innovation defectiveness in tourism. Tour Manag 23:465–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hossain M (1988) Credit for alleviation of rural poverty: the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. Research Report no 65. International Food Policy Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Huggins RA, Williams N (2011) Entrepreneurship and regional competitiveness: the role and progression of policy. Entrepren Reg Dev 23(9–10):907–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jensen C, Trägårdh B (2004) Narrating the Triple Helix concept in “weak” regions: lessons from Sweden. Int J Technol Manag 27(5):513–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Johnson WHA (2008) Roles, resources and benefits of intermediate organizations supporting Triple Helix collaborative R&D: the case of Precarn. Technovation 28:495–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Koski P, Järvensivu A (2011) Proactive labour market policy as a step towards new regional innovation policy: the case of Tampere region. In: Ekman M, Gustavsen B, Asheim BT, Pålshaugen Ø (eds) Learning regional innovation: Scandinavian models, 170–186. Houndmills: Palgrave MacmillanGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lavén F (2008) Organizing innovation – how policies are translated into practice. PhD diss. Göteborg UniversityGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lerpold L, Romani L (2010) Social capital and cross-cultural model replication: the case of Hand in Hand in India and South Africa. In: Munoz JMS (ed) Contemporary microenterprise: concepts and cases. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Leydesdorff L, Etzkowitz H (1998) The Triple Helix as a model for innovation studies. Sci Publ Pol 25(3):195–203Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lewis P (2006) The quest for invisibility: female entrepreneurs and the masculine norm of entrepreneurship. Gend Work Organ 13(5):453–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lindberg M (2010) Samverkansnätverk för innovation - en interaktiv & genusvetenskaplig utmaning av innovationspolitik och innovationsforskning [Joint action for innovation - a participative and gender scientific challenge of innovation policy and innovation research]. (Diss.) Luleå: Luleå University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lindberg M (2011) Women’s Resource Centres – A Swedish model being internationalized. Winnet 8 project, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lindberg M, Danilda I, Thorstensson B-M (2012) Women resource centers: a creative knowledge environment of Quadruple Helix. J Knowl Econ 3(1):36–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lindgren M, Packendorff J (2009) Social constructionism and entrepreneurship: basic assumptions and consequences for theory and research. Int J Entrepren Behav Res 15(1):25–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lundvall B-Å (1992) National systems of innovation: towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. Pinter, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    MacGregor SP, Marques-Gou P, Simon-Villar A (2010) Gauging readiness for the Quadruple Helix: a study of 16 European organizations. J Knowl Econ 1(3):173–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Marlow S, Patton D (2005) All credit to men? Entrepreneurship, finance and gender. Entrepren Theor Pract 29(6):717–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Maxfield S (2005) The entrepreneurship gender gap in global perspective. Briefing note number 22. Simmons School of Management, Center for Gender in Organizations, BostonGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nuur C, Gustavsson L, Laestadius S (2009) Promoting regional innovation systems in a global context. Ind Innovat 16(1):123–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ogbor JO (2000) Mythicising and reification in entrepreneurial discourse: ideology-critique of entrepreneurial studies. J Manag Stud 37(5):605–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Orser BJ, Foster MK (1994) Lending practices and Canadian women in micro-based businesses. Women Manag Rev 9(5):11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Perren L, Jennings PL (2005) Government discourses on entrepreneurship: issues of legitimization, subjugation, and power. Entrepren Theor Pract 29(2):173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pettersson K (2007) Men and male as the norm? A gender perspective on innovation policies in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Nordic Research Programme 2005–2008, Report 4. Nordregio, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ranga M, Etzkowitz H (2010) Athena in the world of Techne: the gender dimension of technology, innovation and entrepreneurship. J Technol Manag Innovat 5(1):1–12Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Skoglund A (2011) Empowering women’s entrepreneurship to establish bottom-up innovation systems. The case of cycling tourism in Norrtälje Region. Quadruple helix reports 2011:5. Norrtälje: Quadruple Helix Central BalticGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sørensen BM (2008) Behold, I am making all things new: the entrepreneur as savior in the age of creativity’. Scand J Manag 24(2):85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Spicer A, Alvesson M, Kärreman D (2009) Critical performativity: the unfinished business of critical management studies. Hum Relat 62(4):537–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Suchman L (2007) Agencies in technology design: feminist reconfigurations. Lancaster UniversityGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sundin E, Holmquist C (1989) Kvinnor som företagare: osynlighet, mångfald, anpassning [Women as entrepreneurs: invisibility, pluralism, adaptation]. Liber, MalmöGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tapscott D, Williams A (2007) Wikinomics: how mass collaboration changes everything. New Paradigm, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Thomas R, Shaw G, Page SJ (2011) Understanding small firms in tourism: a perspective on research trends and challenges. Tour Manag 32:963–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wahl A, Holgersson C, Höök P, Linghag S (2011) Det ordnar sig [It will be all right], 2nd edn. Studentlitteratur, LundGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    West C, Zimmermann DH (1987) Doing gender. Gend Soc 1:125–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Parken A, Rees T (2010) Total control?: The gendering of ‘Triple Helix’. Paper presented at the Triple Helix VIII International Conference on University, Industry and Government LinkagesGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malin Lindberg
    • 1
  • Monica Lindgren
    • 2
  • Johann Packendorff
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Human Work ScienceLuleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden
  2. 2.School of Industrial Engineering and ManagementKTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations