Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Enhancing the observing capacity for the surface ocean by the use of Volunteer Observing Ship

Abstract

Knowledge of the surface ocean dynamics and the underlying controlling mechanisms is critical to understand the natural variability of the ocean and to predict its future response to climate change. In this paper, we highlight the potential use of Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS), as carrier for automatic underway measuring system and as platform for sample collection, to enhance the observing capacity for the surface ocean. We review the concept, history, present status and future development of the VOS-based in situ surface ocean observation. The successes of various VOS projects demonstrate that, along with the rapid advancing sensor techniques, VOS is able to improve the temporal resolution and spatial coverage of the surface ocean observation in a highly cost-effective manner. A sustained and efficient marine monitoring system in the future should integrate the advantages of various observing platforms including VOS.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Ainsworth C. 2008. FerryBoxes begin to make waves. Science, 322(5908): 1627–1629, doi: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.322.5908.1627

  2. Andrady A L. 2011. Microplastics in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(8): 1596–1605, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.05.030

  3. Aßmann S, Frank C, Körtzinger A. 2011. Spectrophotometric high-precision seawater pH determination for use in underway measuring systems. Ocean Science, 7(5): 597–607, doi: 10.5194/os-7-597-2011

  4. Bakker D C E, Pfeil B, Landa C S, et al. 2016. A multi-decade record of high-quality fCO2 data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). Earth System Science Data, 8(2): 383–413, doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-8-383-2016

  5. Bandstra L, Hales B, Takahashi T. 2006. High-frequency measurements of total CO2: method development and first oceanographic observations. Marine Chemistry, 100(1–2): 24–38

  6. Beggs H M, Verein R, Paltoglou G, et al. 2012. Enhancing ship of opportunity sea surface temperature observations in the Australian region. Journal of Operational Oceanography, 5(1): 59–73, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/1755876X.2012.11020132

  7. Brander K M, Dickson R R, Edwards M. 2003. Use of continuous plankton recorder information in support of marine management: applications in fisheries, environmental protection, and in the study of ecosystem response to environmental change. Progress in Oceanography, 58(2–4): 175–191

  8. Cassar N, Barnett B A, Bender M L, et al. 2009. Continuous high-frequency dissolved O2/Ar measurements by equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 81(5): 1855–1864, doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/ac802300u

  9. De La Paz M, Padín X A, Ríos A F, et al. 2010. Surface fCO2 variability in the Loire plume and adjacent shelf waters: high spatio-temporal resolution study using ships of opportunity. Marine Chemistry, 118(3–4): 108–118

  10. DeGrandpre M D, Hammar T R, Smith S P, et al. 1995. In situ measurements of seawater pCO2. Limnology and Oceanography, 40(5): 969–975, doi: https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1995.40.5.0969

  11. Diercks-Horn S, Metfies K, Jäckel S, et al. 2011. The ALGADEC device: a semi-automated rRNA biosensor for the detection of toxic algae. Harmful Algae, 10(4): 395–401, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2011.02.001

  12. Donlon C, Robinson I S, Wimmer W, et al. 2008. An infrared sea surface temperature autonomous radiometer (ISAR) for deployment aboard volunteer observing ships (VOS). Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 25(1): 93–113, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JTECHO505.1

  13. Dumousseaud C, Achterberg E P, Tyrrell T, et al. 2010. Contrasting effects of temperature and winter mixing on the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the carbonate system in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences, 7(5): 1481–1492, doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-1481-2010

  14. Frank C, Schroeder F, Ebinghaus R, et al. 2006. A fast sequential injection analysis system for the simultaneous determination of ammonia and phosphate. Microchimica Acta, 154(1–2): 31–38

  15. Fuda J L, Millot C, Taupier-Letage I, et al. 2000. XBT monitoring of a meridian section across the western Mediterranean Sea. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 47(11): 2191–2218, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(00)00018-2

  16. Garcia-Soto C, Pingree R D. 2009. Spring and summer blooms of phytoplankton (SeaWiFS/MODIS) along a ferry line in the Bay of Biscay and western English Channel. Continental Shelf Research, 29(8): 1111–1122, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2008.12.012

  17. Goni G, Roemmich D, Molinari R, et al. 2010. The ship of opportunity program. In: Proceedings of OceanObs’ 09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2). Venice, Italy: ESA Publication

  18. Grayek S, Staneva J, Schulz-Stellenfleth J, et al. 2011. Use of FerryBox surface temperature and salinity measurements to improve model based state estimates for the German Bight. Journal of Marine Systems, 88(1): 45–59, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2011.02.020

  19. Haller M, Janssen F, Siddorn J, et al. 2015. Evaluation of numerical models by FerryBox and fixed platform in situ data in the southern North Sea. Ocean Science, 11(6): 879–896, doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/os-11-879-2015

  20. Hartman S E, Hartman M C, Hydes D J, et al. 2014a. Seasonal and inter-annual variability in nutrient supply in relation to mixing in the Bay of Biscay. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 106: 68–75, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.09.032

  21. Hartman S E, Hartman M C, Hydes D J, et al. 2014b. The role of hydrographic parameters, measured from a ship of opportunity, in bloom formation of Karenia mikimotoi in the English Channel. Journal of Marine Systems, 140: 39–49, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.07.001

  22. Hydes D J, Campbell J M. 2007. SNOMS swire NOCS ocean monitoring system: diary of the system development and installation on the MV Pacific Celebes in 2006 and 2007. Southampton: National Oceanography Centre

  23. Hydes D J, Hartman M C, Campbell J M, et al. 2013. Report of the SNOMS project 2006 to 2012 (part 1–narrative description). Southampton: National Oceanography Centre

  24. Hydes D J, Hartman M C, Kaiser J, et al. 2009. Measurement of dissolved oxygen using optodes in a FerryBox system. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 83(4): 485–490, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2009.04.014

  25. Jiang Z P, Hydes D J, Hartman S E, et al. 2014a. Application and assessment of a membrane-based pCO2 sensor under field and laboratory conditions. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 12(4): 264–280, doi: https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2014.12.264

  26. Jiang Z P, Hydes D J, Tyrrell T, et al. 2013. Key controls on the seasonal and interannual variations of the carbonate system and air-sea CO2 flux in the Northeast Atlantic (Bay of Biscay). Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 118(2): 785–800, doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrc.20087

  27. Jiang Z P, Tyrrell T, Hydes D J, et al. 2014b. Variability of alkalinity and the alkalinity-salinity relationship in the tropical and subtropical surface ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 28(7): 729–742, doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GB004678

  28. Kelly-Gerreyn B A, Hydes D J, Hartman M C, et al. 2007. The phosphoric acid leak from the wreck of the MV Ece in the English Channel in 2006: assessment with a ship of opportunity, an operational ecosystem model and historical data. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54(7): 850–862, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.04.020

  29. Kikas V, Lips U. 2016. Upwelling characteristics in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) as revealed by Ferrybox measurements in 2007–2013. Ocean Science, 12(3): 843–859, doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/os-12-843-2016

  30. Korres G, Nittis K, Hoteit I, et al. 2009. A high resolution data assimilation system for the Aegean Sea hydrodynamics. Journal of Marine Systems, 77(3): 325–340, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.12.014

  31. Li Q L, Wang F Z, Wang Z A, et al. 2013. Automated spectrophotomet-ric analyzer for rapid single-point titration of seawater total alkalinity. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(19): 11139–11146

  32. Liu J Y. 2009. Development and Management Status of Voluntary Observing Ships in China. Marine Science Bulletin, 11(1): 90–96

  33. Lu Z M, Dai M H, Xu K M, et al. 2008. A high precision, fast response, and low power consumption in situ optical fiber chemical pCO2 sensor. Talanta, 76(2): 353–359, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2008.03.005

  34. Lüger H, Wanninkhof R, Wallace D W R, et al. 2006. CO2 fluxes in the subtropical and subarctic North Atlantic based on measurements from a volunteer observing ship. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 111(C6): C06024

  35. Martz T R, Dickson A G, DeGrandpre M D. 2006. Tracer monitored titrations: measurement of total alkalinity. Analytical Chemistry, 78(6): 1817–1826, doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/ac0516133

  36. Ostle C, Johnson M, Landschützer P, et al. 2015. Net community production in the North Atlantic Ocean derived from Volunteer Observing Ship data. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29(1): 80–95, doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GB004868

  37. Petersen W. 2014. FerryBox systems: state-of-the-art in Europe and future development. Journal of Marine Systems, 140: 4–12, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.07.003

  38. Petersen W, Colijn F. 2017. Ferrybox whitebook. Brussels: EuroGOOS Publication

  39. Petersen W, Schroeder F, Bockelmann F D. 2011. FerryBox-applica-tion of continuous water quality observations along transects in the North Sea. Ocean Dynamics, 61(10): 1541–1554, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-011-0445-0

  40. Reid P C, Colebrook J M, Matthews J B L, et al. 2003. The Continuous Plankton Recorder: concepts and history, from Plankton Indicator to undulating recorders. Progress in Oceanography, 58(2–4): 117–173

  41. Reid P C, Edwards M, Hunt H G, et al. 1998. Phytoplankton change in the North Atlantic. Nature, 391(6667): 546, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/35290

  42. Rossby T, Siedler G, Zenk W. 1995. The volunteer observing ship and future ocean monitoring. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 76(1): 5–12, doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1995)076 <0005:TVOSAF>2.0.CO;2

  43. Rubin S I, Wu H P. 2000. A novel fiber-optic sensor for the long-term, autonomous measurement of pCO2 in seawater. In: Proceedings of OCEANS 2000 MTS/IEEE Conference and Exhibition. V 1. Providence: IEEE, 631–639

  44. Sayles F L, Eck C. 2009. An autonomous instrument for time series analysis of TCO2 from oceanographic moorings. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 56(9): 1590–1603, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2009.04.006

  45. Schneider B, Kaitala S, Maunula P. 2006. Identification and quantification of plankton bloom events in the Baltic Sea by continuous pCO2 and chlorophyll a measurements on a cargo ship. Journal of Marine Systems, 59(3–4): 238–248

  46. Seppälä J, Ylöstalo P, Kaitala S, et al. 2007. Ship-of-opportunity based phycocyanin fluorescence monitoring of the filamentous cyanobacteria bloom dynamics in the Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 73(3–4): 489–500

  47. Tengberg A, Hovdenes J, Andersson H J, et al. 2006. Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems. Limnology and Oceanography-Methods, 4(2): 7–17, doi: https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2006.4.7

  48. Thyssen M, Alvain S, Lefèbvre A, et al. 2015. High-resolution analysis of a North Sea phytoplankton community structure based on in situ flow cytometry observations and potential implication for remote sensing. Biogeosciences, 12(13): 4051–4066, doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-4051-2015

  49. Wang Z A, Cai W J, Wang Y C, et al. 2003. A long pathlength liquidcore waveguide sensor for real-time pCO2 measurements at sea. Marine Chemistry, 84(1–2): 73–84

  50. Wang Z A, Chu S N, Hoering K A. 2013. High-frequency spectrophotometric measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(14): 7840–7847

  51. Wang Z H, Wang Y C, Cai W J, et al. 2002. A long pathlength spectrophotometric pCO2 sensor using a gas-permeable liquid-corewaveguide. Talanta, 57(1): 69–80, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(02)00008-5

  52. Wollschlager J, Grunwald M, Röttgers R, et al. 2013. Flow-through PSICAM: a new approach for determining water constituents absorption continuously. Ocean Dynamics, 63(7): 761–775, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-013-0629-x

  53. Zubkov M V, Sleigh M A, Burkill P H. 2000. Assaying picoplankton distribution by flow cytometry of underway samples collected along a meridional transect across the Atlantic Ocean. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 21(1): 13–20

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Wei Fan.

Additional information

Foundation item: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41506090; the National Key Research and Development Program of China under contract No. 2016YFA0601400; the Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry under contract No. GCMAC1408. *Corresponding author, E-mail: e]wayfan@zju.edu.cn

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jiang, Z., Yuan, J., Hartman, S.E. et al. Enhancing the observing capacity for the surface ocean by the use of Volunteer Observing Ship. Acta Oceanol. Sin. 38, 114–120 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-019-1463-3

Download citation

Key words

  • volunteer observing ship
  • ship of opportunity
  • surface ocean
  • in situ observation
  • sensor