Advertisement

Acta Oceanologica Sinica

, Volume 38, Issue 8, pp 72–77 | Cite as

Distribution of green algae micro-propagules and their function in the formation of the green tides in the coast of Qinhuangdao, the Bohai Sea, China

  • Hongbin Han
  • Wei Song
  • Zongling WangEmail author
  • Dewen Ding
  • Chao Yuan
  • Xuelei Zhang
  • Yan Li
Article

Abstract

Since 2015, a novel green tide has been recurring in the coastal areas of Qinhuangdao at the western coast of the Bohai Sea in China, threatening the environment and ecosystem of the Beidaihe seaside holiday resort along the coast. Micro-propagules of the green algae including gametes, spores, micro-germlings and micro-vegetative fragments play an important role in the formation of green tides. They serve as a “seed source” of green macroalgae, and their distributions could reflect and influence the “algae source” of green tides. In this study, monthly surveys in the inshore and offshore areas of the Qinhuangdao coast were conducted from April to September 2016 and in January 2017 to investigate the tempo-spatial distribution patterns and the biomass variations of the green algae micro-propagules. The obtained results show that micro-propagules were mainly distributed in the inshore areas with a significantly decreasing abundance towards offshore areas. Their biomass was highest in July and August, and lowest in winter. The areas that were affected by the green tides showed a remarkably higher abundance of micro-propagules compared to other areas. These micro-propagules could serve as the “seed” source of green tides. Their distribution patterns indicate that the green tide in the coastal areas of Qinhuangdao originated locally.

Key words

green tides micro-propagules macroalgae Qinhuangdao Bohai Sea 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agrawal S C. 2009. Factors affecting spore germination in algae-review. Folia Microbiologica, 54: 273–302, doi: 10.1007/s12223-009-0047-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bold H C, Wynne M J. 1978. Introduction to the Algae: Structure and Reproduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Press, 571–578Google Scholar
  3. Fan Shiliang, Fu Mingzhu, Wang Zongling, et al. 2015. Temporal variation of green macroalgal assemblage on Porphyra aquaculture rafts in the Subei shoal, China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 163: 23–28, doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2015.03.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fang Song, Wang Zongling, Li Yan, et al. 2012. The dynamics of mi-cro-propagules before the Green tide (Ulva prolifera) outbreak in the southern Huanghai Sea and Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuary area. Haiyang Xuebao (in Chinese), 34(4): 147–154Google Scholar
  5. Fong P, Boyer K E, Desmond J S, et al. 1996. Salinity stress, nitrogen competition, and facilitation: what controls seasonal succession of two opportunistic green macroalgae?. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 206(1–2): 203–221, doi: 10.1016/S0022-0981(96)02630-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hoffmann A, Santelices B. 1991. Banks of algal microscopic forms: hypotheses on their functioning and comparisons with seed banks. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 79(1): 85–194Google Scholar
  7. Huo Yuanzi, Han Hongbin, Hua Liang, et al. 2016. Tracing the origin of green macroalgal blooms based on the large scale spatiotemporal distribution of Ulva microscopic propagules and settled mature Ulva vegetative thalli in coastal regions of the Yellow Sea, China. Harmful Algae, 59: 91–99, doi: 10.1016/j. hal.2016.09.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Huo Yuanzi, Hua Liang, Wu Hailong, et al. 2014. Abundance and distribution of Ulva microscopic propagules associated with a green tide in the southern coast of the Yellow Sea. Harmful Algae, 39: 357–364, doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2014.09.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Li Yan, Song Wei, Xiao Jie, et al. 2014. Tempo-spatial distribution and species diversity of green algae micro-propagules in the Yellow Sea during the large-scale green tide development. Harmful Algae, 39: 40–47, doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2014.05.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Li Ruixiang, Wu Xiaowen, Wei Qinsheng, et al. 2009. Growth of En-teromorpha Prolifera under different nutrient conditions. Advances in Marine Science (in Chinese), 27: 21–216Google Scholar
  11. Liu Dongyan, Keesing J K, He Peimin, et al. 2013. The world’s largest macroalgal bloom in the Yellow Sea, China: formation and implications. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 129: 2–10, doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2013.05.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Liu Feng, Pang Shaojun, Zhao Xiaobo, et al. 2012. Quantitative, molecular and growth analyses of Ulva microscopic propagules in the coastal sediment of Jiangsu province where green tides initially occurred. Marine Environmental Research, 74: 56–63, doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2011.12.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lotze H K, Worm B, Sommer U. 2001. Strong bottom-up and top-down control of early life stages of macroalgae. Limnology and Oceanography, 46(4): 749–757, doi: 10.4319/lo.2001.46.4.0749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nelson T A, Nelson A V, Tjoelker M. 2003. Seasonal patterns in ulvoid algal biomass, productivity, and key environmental factors in the northeast pacific. Botanica Marina, 46: 263–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pang Shaojun, Liu Feng, Shan Tifeng, et al. 2010. Tracking the algal origin of the Ulva bloom in the Yellow Sea by a combination of molecular, morphological and physiological analyses. Marine Environmental Research, 69(4): 207–215, doi: 10.1016/j.maren-vres.2009.10.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Provasoli L. 1963. Growing marine seaweeds. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Seaweed Symposium. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 9–17Google Scholar
  17. Raffaelli D G, Raven J A, Poole L J. 1998. Ecological impact of green macroalgal blooms. Oceanography and Marine Biology, 125: 37–97Google Scholar
  18. Santelices B, Hoffmann A J, Aedo D, et al. 1995. A bank of microscopic forms on disturbed boulders and stones in tide pools. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 129: 215–228, doi: 10.3354/meps129215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Song Wei, Jiang Meijie, Wang Zongling, et al. 2018. Source of pro-pagules of the fouling green macroalgae in the Subei Shoal, China. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 37: 102–108Google Scholar
  20. Song Wei, Li Yan, Fang Song, et al. 2015a. Temporal and spatial distributions of green algae micro-propagules in the coastal waters of the Subei Shoal, China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 163: 29–35, doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2014.08.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Song Wei, Peng Keqin, Xiao Jie, et al. 2015b. Effects of temperature on the germination of green algae micro-propagules in coastal waters of the Subei Shoal, China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 163: 63–68, doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2014.08.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Taylor R, Fletcher R L, Raven J A. 2001. Preliminary studies on the growth of selected ‘green tide’ algae in laboratory culture: effects of irradiance, temperature, salinity and nutrients on growth rate. Botanica Marina, 44(4): 327–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Teichberg M, Fox S E, Olsen Y S, et al. 2010. Eutrophication and mac-roalgal blooms in temperate and tropical coastal waters: nutrient enrichment experiments with Ulva spp. Global Change Biology, 16(9): 2624–2637Google Scholar
  24. Valiela I, Mcclelland J, Hauxwell J, et al. 1997. Macroalgal blooms in shallow estuaries: controls and ecophysiological and ecosystem consequences. Limnology and Oceanography, 42: 1105–1118, doi: 10.4319/lo.1997.42.5_part_2.1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wang Zongling, Xiao Jie, Fan Shiliang, et al. 2015. Who made the world’s largest green tide in China?—an integrated study on the initiation and early development of the green tide in Yellow sea. Limnology and Oceanography, 60(4): 1105–1117, doi: 10.1002/lno.10083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Worm B, Lotze H K. 2006. Effects of eutrophication, grazing, and algal blooms on rocky shores. Limnology and Oceanography, 51: 569–579, doi: 10.4319/lo.2006.51.1_part_2.0569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Worm B, Lotze H K, Sommer U. 2001. Algal propagule banks modify competition, consumer and resource control on baltic rocky shores. Oecologia, 128(2): 281–293, doi: 10.1007/s004420100648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang Xiaowen, Wang Hongxia, Mao Yuze, et al. 2010. Somatic cells serve as a potential propagule bank of Enteromorpha prolifera forming a green tide in the Yellow Sea, China. Journal of Applied Phycology, 22(2): 173–180, doi: 10.1007/s10811-009-9437-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhang Xiaowen, Xu Dong, Mao Yuze, et al. 2011. Settlement of vegetative fragments of Ulva prolifera confirmed as an important seed source for succession of a large-scale green tide bloom. Limnology and Oceanography, 56(1): 233–242, doi: 10.4319/10.2011.56.1.0233CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Society for Oceanography and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongbin Han
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wei Song
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zongling Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Dewen Ding
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chao Yuan
    • 2
    • 3
  • Xuelei Zhang
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yan Li
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Environmental Science and EngineeringOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Science and Engineering for Marine Ecology and Environment, First Institute of OceanographyMinistry of Natural ResourcesQingdaoChina
  3. 3.Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental SciencePilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao)QingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations