Acta Oceanologica Sinica

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 68–75 | Cite as

Upper limits for chlorophyll a changes with brine volume in sea ice during the austral spring in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

  • Zhijun Li
  • Runling Li
  • Zipan Wang
  • Christian Haas
  • Gerhard Dieckmann
Article
  • 51 Downloads

Abstract

During the winter and spring of 2006, we investigated the sea ice physics and marine biology in the northwest Weddell Sea, Antarctica aboard R/V Polarstern. We determined the texture of each ice core and 71 ice crystal thin sections from 27 ice cores. We analyzed 393 ice cores, their temperatures, 348 block density and salinity samples, and 311 chlorophyll a (Chl a) and phaeophytin samples along the cruise route during the investigation. Based on the vertical distributions of 302 groups of data for the ice porosity and Chl a content in the ice at the same position, we obtained new evidence that ice physical parameters influence the Chl a content in ice. We collected snow and ice thickness data, and established the effects of the snow and ice thickness on the Chl a blooms under the ice, as well as the relationships between the activity of ice algae cells and the brine volume in ice according to the principle of environmental control of the ecological balance. We determined the upper limits for Chl a in the brine volume of granular and columnar ice in the Antarctica, thereby demonstrating the effects of ice crystals on brine drainage, and the contributions of the physical properties of sea ice to Chl a blooms near the ice bottom and on the ice-water interface in the austral spring. Moreover, we found that the physical properties of sea ice affect ice algae and they are key control elements that modulate marine phytoplankton blooms in the ice-covered waters around Antarctica.

Key words

Antarctic brine volume chlorophyll a ice crystal mode sea ice 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackley S F. 1982. Ice scavenging and nucleation: Two mechanisms for incorporation of algae into newly forming sea ice. EOS Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 63: 54–55Google Scholar
  2. Arrigo K R, van Dijken G L. 2004. Annual changes in sea-ice, chlorophyll a, and primary production in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 51(1–3): 117–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Assur A. 1960. Composition of sea ice and its tensile strength. SIPRE Research Reports, 44. San Diego: University of CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  4. Campbell K, Mundy C J, Barber D G, et al. 2015. Characterizing the sea ice algae chlorophyll a-snow depth relationship over Arctic spring melt using transmitted irradiance. Journal of Marine Systems, 147: 76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen Xingqun, Dieckmann G. 1989. Distributions of chlorophyll a and diatom in the fast ice near coastal of Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Haiyang Xuebao (in Chinese), 11(4): 501–509Google Scholar
  6. Cox G F N, Weeks W F. 1983. Equations for determining the gas and brine volumes in sea-ice samples. Journal of Glaciology, 29(102): 306–316Google Scholar
  7. Dai Fangfang, Wang Zipan, Yan Xiaojun, et al. 2010. Physical structure and vertical distribution of chlorophyll a in winter sea ice from the northwestern Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 29(3): 97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dieckmann G, Rohardt G, Hellmer H, et al. 1986. The occurrence of ice platelets at 250 m depth near the Filchner Ice Shelf and its significance for sea ice biology. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 33(2): 141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eicken H. 1992a. Salinity profiles of Antarctic sea ice: field data and model results. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97(C10): 15545–15557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eicken H. 1992b. The role of sea ice in structuring Antarctic ecosystems. Polar Biology, 12(1): 3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garrison D L, Sullivan C W, Ackley S F. 1986. Sea ice microbial communities in Antarctica. BioScience, 36(4): 243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gleitz M, Rutgers v d Loeff M, Thomas D N, et al. 1995. Comparison of summer and winter inorganic carbon, oxygen and nutrient concentrations in Antarctic sea ice brine. Marine Chemistry, 51(2): 81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gradinger R. 2009. Sea-ice algae: Major contributors to primary production and algal biomass in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas during May/June 2002. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 56: 1201–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Haas C, Friedrich A, Li Zhijun, et al. 2009. Regional variability of sea ice properties and thickness in the Northwestern Weddell Sea obtained by in-situ and satellite measurements. In: Lemke P, ed. The Expedition of the Research Vessel "Polarstern" to the Antarctic in 2006 (ANT-XXIII/7). Reports on Polar and Marine Research, 586: 36–74Google Scholar
  15. He Jianfeng, Chen Bo. 1995. Vertical and seasonal variations in biomass of ice algae in the vicinity of Zhongshan Station, Antarctica. Antarctic Research (Chinese Edition) (in Chinese), 7(4): 53–64Google Scholar
  16. He Jianfeng, Chen Bo, Huang Fengpeng. 1996. Seasonal changes of chlorophyll a and oceanographic conditions under fast ice off Zhongshan Station, East Antarctica in 1992. Antarctic Research (Chinese Edition) (in Chinese), 8(2): 23–34Google Scholar
  17. He Jianfeng, Wang Guizhong, Li Shaojing, et al. 2003. A review of the ice algal assemblages and their live history in the Antarctic seaice zone. Chinese Journal of Polar Research (in Chinese), 15(2): 102–114Google Scholar
  18. Hendry K R, Rickaby R E M, de Hoog J C M, et al. 2010. The cadmiumphosphate relationship in brine: biological versus physical control over micronutrients in sea ice environments. Antarctic Science, 22(1): 11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kovacs K M, Lydersen C, Overland J E, et al. 2011. Impacts of changing sea-ice conditions on Arctic marine mammals. Marine Biodiversity, 41(1): 181–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leppäranta M, Manninen T. 1988. The brine and gas content of sea ice with attention to low salinities and high temperatures. Helsinki: Finnish Institute of Marine ResearchGoogle Scholar
  21. Li Baohua. 2004. Variation of chlorophyll a contents at the wharf of the Great Wall Station, Antarctica. Chinese Journal of Polar Research (in Chinese), 16(4): 332–337Google Scholar
  22. Li Zhijun, Nicolaus M, Toyota T, et al. 2010. Analysis on the crystals of sea ice cores derived from Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Chinese Journal of Polar Science, 21(1): 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Maykut G A, Grenfell T C. 1975. The spectral distribution of light beneath first-year sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. Limnology and Oceanography, 20(4): 554–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meiners K M, Norman L, Granskog M A, et al. 2011. Physico-ecobiogeochemistry of East Antarctic pack ice during the winterspring transition. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 58(9–10): 1172–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Melnikov I A, Kolosova E G, Welch H E, et al. 2002. Sea ice biological communities and nutrient dynamics in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 49(9): 1623–1649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mundy C J, Barber D G, Michel C. 2005. Variability of snow and ice thermal, physical and optical properties pertinent to sea ice algae biomass during spring. Journal of Marine Systems, 58(3–4): 107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nicolaus M, Hudson S R, Gerland S, et al. 2010. A modern concept for autonomous and continuous measurements of spectral albedo and transmittance of sea ice. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 62(1): 14–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Olsen M S, Callaghan T V, Reist J D, et al. 2011. The changing Arctic cryosphere and likely consequences: An overview. Ambio, 40: 111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Palmisano A C, Sullivan C W. 1985. Physiological response of microalgae in the ice-platelet layer to low-light conditions. In: Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 84–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Palmisano A C, Beeler Soohoo J, Sullivan C W. 1987. Effects of four environmental variables on photosynthesis-irradiance relationships in Antarctic sea-ice microalgae. Marine Biology, 94(2): 299–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Robinson D H, Arrigo K R, Kolber Z, et al. 1998. Photophysiological evidence of nutrient limitation of platelet ice algae in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Journal of Phycology, 34(5): 788–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Suzuki Y, Kudoh S, Takahashi M. 1997. Photosynthetic and respiratory characteristics of an Arctic ice algal community living in low light and low temperature conditions. Journal of Marine Systems, 11(1–2): 111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tedesco L, Vichi M, Thomas D N. 2012. Process studies on the ecological coupling between sea ice algae and phytoplankton. Ecological Modelling, 226: 120–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tremblay J E, Simpson K, Martin J, et al. 2008. Vertical stability and the annual dynamics of nutrients and chlorophyll fluorescence in the coastal, southeast Beaufort Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113(C7): doi: 10.1029/2007JC004547Google Scholar
  35. Wang Zipan, Dieckmann G, Gradinger R. 1997. Ecological structure of newly formed sea ice in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica: I. Chlorophyll a and nutrients. Chinese Journal of Polar Research (in Chinese), 9(1): 9–17Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Chinese Society of Oceanography and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhijun Li
    • 1
  • Runling Li
    • 1
  • Zipan Wang
    • 2
  • Christian Haas
    • 3
  • Gerhard Dieckmann
    • 4
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore EngineeringDalian University of TechnologyDalianChina
  2. 2.Second Institute of OceanographyState Oceanic AdministrationHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Space Science and EngineeringYork UniversityTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine ResearchBremerhavenGermany

Personalised recommendations